Basic Data-Based Measures

  • Paweł D. DomańskiEmail author
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 245)


Apart of the step response, the raw time data for the loop variables are frequently used to evaluate integral indexes. Mean Square Error (MSE) is the classical example, being used by almost everybody. Actually, hardly anybody things about integral measure formulation—MSE is just selected. Its story started in the beginning of the 19th century and continues. However, there are much more integral indexes that might be used, like Integral Absolute Error (IAE), which history is not shorter. Despite all the deficiencies of the squared error, its lack of robustness we use it. This chapter brings forward various integral measures existing in the CPA research. The integral measures are using one dimensional trends, however 2-D data representation might be useful for the loop analysis as well. The short discussion about X-Y plots concludes the chapter.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Control and Computation EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

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