Step Response Indexes

  • Paweł D. DomańskiEmail author
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 245)


Time series files are the first available data about the control system. Actually, for the univariate loop we have available four variables: process output, manipulating variable, setpoint and control error. Analysis of this data in time domain is often the first shot in the CPA analysis. Once the time trends are properly acquired from the industrial system and delivered to the analysis, one can start playing with them. Step response and the associated indexes are almost always considered as the starting point. The main measures of the settling time and overshoot constitute the reference factors delivering commonly understood research and practical baseline. They are sometimes followed by their derivative indexes, which are based not only on the step loop response but also on the loop disturbance step or impulse response. This chapter puts together and summarizes the approaches that use time-domain step response as the fundamental element.


  1. 1.
    Björklund, S.: A survey and comparison of time-delay estimation methods in linear systems. Technical Report Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, Thesis No. 1061, Linköping Universitet, Department of Electrical Engineering, Division of Automatic Control, Sweden (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goradia, D.B., Lakshminarayanan, S., Rangaiah, G.P.: Attainment of PI achievable performance for linear SISO processes with deadtime by iterative tuning. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 83(4), 723–736 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hägglund, T.: Automatic detection of sluggish control loops. Control Eng. Prac. 7(12), 1505–1511 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Isermann, R., Münchhof, M.: Identification of Dynamic Systems: An Introduction with Applications. Springer Publishing Company, Incorporated (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jelali, M.: Control system performance monitoring assessment, diagnosis and improvement of control loop performance in industrial automation. Ph.D. thesis, Habilitationsschrift of the Universität Duisburg-Essen (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liptak, B.G.: Instrument Engineers’ Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume Two: Process Control and Optimization. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Salsbury, T.I.: A practical method for assessing the performance of control loops subject to random load changes. J. Process Control 15(4), 393–405 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seborg, D., Edgar, T.F., Mellichamp, D.: Process Dynamics & Control. Wiley, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spinner, T.: Performance assessment of multivariate control systems. Ph.D. thesis, Texas Tech University (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Swanda, A.P., Seborg, D.E.: Controller performance assessment based on setpoint response data. In: Proceedings of the 1999 American Control Conference, vol. 6, pp. 3863–3867 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Veronesi, M., Visioli, A.: A technique for abrupt load disturbance detection in process control systems. IFAC Proc. 41(2), 14900–14905 (2008). 17th IFAC World CongressCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Visioli, A.: Method for proportional-integral controller tuning assessment. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 45(8), 2741–2747 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Control and Computation EngineeringWarsaw University of TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations