Advertisement

Water Quality pp 335-378 | Cite as

Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements

Chapter
  • 721 Downloads

Abstract

The solubilities of most minerals from which trace metals in natural waters originate are favored by low pH. The concentration of the free ion of a dissolved trace element usually is much lower than is the total concentration of the trace element. This results from ion pair associations between the free trace ion and major ions, complex ion formation, hydrolysis of metal ions, and chelation of metal ions. Several trace elements—zinc, copper, iron, manganese, boron, fluorine, iodine, selenium, cadmium, cobalt, and molybdenum—are essential to plants, animals or both. A few other trace elements are suspected, but not unequivocally proven to be essential. There are some reports of low micronutrient concentrations limiting the productivity of water bodies; but primary productivity in most water bodies apparently is not limited by a shortage of micronutrients. Trace elements—including the ones that are nutrients—may be toxic at high concentration to aquatic organisms. Excessive concentrations of several trace metals in drinking water also can be harmful to human health. Instances of trace element toxicity in aquatic animals and humans usually have resulted from anthropogenic pollution. Nevertheless, excessive concentrations of trace metals in drinking water sometimes occur naturally—an example is the presence of chronically-toxic concentrations of arsenic in groundwater that serves as the water supply for several million people in a few provinces of Bangladesh and adjoining India.

References

  1. Accornero M, Marini L, Lelli M (2008) The dissociation constant of antimonic acid at 10-40°C. J Solution Chem 37:785–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RA (1997) Chromium as an essential nutrient for humans. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 26:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnon DI, Wessel G (1953) Vanadium as an essential element in green plants. Nature 172:1039–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baralkiewicz D, Siepak J (1999) Chromium, nickel, and cobalt in environmental samples and existing legal norms. Pol J Environ Stud 8:201–208Google Scholar
  5. Besser JM, Leib KJ (2007) Toxicity of metals in water and sediment to aquatic biota. In: Church SE, von Guerard P, Finger SE (eds) Integrated investigations of environmental effects of historical mining in the Animas River Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, p. 839–849Google Scholar
  6. Boyd CE, Walley WW (1972) Studies of the biogeochemistry of boron. I. Concentrations in surface waters, rainfall, and aquatic plants. Am Midl Nat 88(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. British Geological Survey (2000) Iodine. Water quality fact sheet, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Camargo JA (2003) Fluoride toxicity to aquatic organisms: a review. Chemosphere 50:251–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canton JH, Webster PW, Mathijssen-Speikman EA (1983) Study on the toxicity of sodium bromide to different freshwater organisms. Food Chem Toxicol 21:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cardwell AS, Adams WJ, Gensemer RW, Nordheim E, Santore RC, Ryan AC, Stubblefield WA (2018) Chronic toxicity of aluminum, at pH 6, to freshwater organisms: empirical data for the development of international regulatory standards/criteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 37:36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chowdhury UK, Biswas BK, Chowdhury TR, Samanta G, Mandal BK, Basu GC, Cahnda CR, Lodh D, Saha KC, Murkherfee SK, Roy S, Kalir S, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D (2000) Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environ Health Perspect 108:393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ćosović B, Degobbis D, Bilinski H, Branica M (1982) Inorganic cobalt species in seawater. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deverel SJ, Goldberg S, Fujii R (2012) Chemistry of trace elements in soils and groundwater. In: Wallender WW, Tanji KK (eds) ASCE manual and reports on Engineering practice No 71 Agricultural salinity assessment and management, 2nd edn. ASCE, Reston, pp 89–137Google Scholar
  14. Durum WH, Haffty J (1961) Occurrence of minor elements in water. United States Geological Survey Circular 445, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esdaile LJ, Chalker JM (2018) The mercury problem in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Chem Eur J 24:6905–6916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Essumang DK (2009) Levels of cobalt and silver in water sources in a mining area in Ghana. Int J Biol Chem Sci 3:1437–1444Google Scholar
  17. Filella M (2010) How reliable are environmental data on “orphan elements?” The case of bismuth concentrations in surface waters. J Environ Monit 12:90–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Firth J (2013) Arsenic—the ‘poison of kings’ and the ‘saviour of syphilis’. J Mil Vet Health 21:11–17Google Scholar
  19. Flegal AR, Patterson CC (1985) Concentrations of thallium in seawater. Mar Chem 15:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Flegal AR, Rivera-Durarte SA, Sanudo-Wilhelmy SA (1997) Silver contamination in aquatic environments. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 148:139–162Google Scholar
  21. Frattini P (2005) Thallium properties and behaviour—a literature study. Geological survey of Finland. http://tupa.gtk.fi/raportti/arkisto/s41_0000_2005_2.pdf
  22. Fries L (1982) Vanadium an essential element for some marine macroalgae. Planta 154:393–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaillardet J, Viers J, Duprèe B (2003) Trace elements in river waters. In: Turekian K, Holland H (eds) Treatise on geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 5–9Google Scholar
  24. Gary JE, Theodorakos PM, Fey DL, Krabbenhoft DP (2015) Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA. Environ Geochem Health 37:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gensemer RW, Playle RC (2010) The bioavailability and toxicity of aluminum in aquatic environments. Crit Rev Environ Sci Tech 29:315–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldberg ED (1963) The oceans as a chemical system. In: Hill MN (ed) Composition of sea water, comparative and descriptive oceanography, Vol II. The sea. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldman CR (1972) The role of minor nutrients in limiting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems. In Likens GE (ed) Nutrients and eutrophication: the limiting-nutrients controversy. Lim Ocean Spec Sym 1:21–33Google Scholar
  28. Guo T, Delaune RD, Patrick WH (1997) The effect of sediment redox chemistry on solubility/chemically active forms of selected metals in bottom sediment receiving produced water discharge. Spill Sci Tech Bull 4:165–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamilton SJ (2004) Review of selenium toxicity in the aquatic food chain. Sci Total Environ 326:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heijerick DG, Carey S (2017) The toxicity of molybdate to freshwater and marine organisms. III. Generating additional chronic toxicity data for the refinement of safe environmental exposure concentrations in the US and Europe. Sci Total Environ 609:420–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hem JD (1970) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. Water-supply paper 1473, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  32. Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. Water-supply paper 2254, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  33. Hem JD, Roberson CE (1967) Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution. Water-supply paper 1827-A, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. Howarth RS, Sprague JB (1978) Copper lethality to rainbow trout in waters of various hardness and pH. Water Res 12:455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Howe P, Watts P (2003) Tin and inorganic tin compounds. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 65, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  36. Hyenstrand P, Rydin E, Gunnerhed M (2000) Response of pelagic cyanobacteria to iron additions—enclosure experiments from Lake Erken. J Plankton Res 22:1113–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûretè Nuclèaire) (2012) Natural uranium in the environment. https://www.irsn.fr/EN/Research/publications-documentation/radionuclides-sheets/environment/Pages/Natural-uranium-environment.aspx
  38. Izbicki JA, Ball JW, Bullen TD, Sutley SJ (2008) Chromium, chromium isotopes and selected trace elements, western Mojave Desert, USA. Appl Geochem 23:1325–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jaszczak E, Palkowska Z, Narkowicz S, Namieśnik J (2017) Cyanides in the environment—analysis—problems—challenges. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:15929–15948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones DA (1998) Why are so many plant foods cyanogenic? Phytochemistry 47:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karbowska B (2016) Presence of thallium in the environment: sources of contaminations, distribution, and monitoring methods. Environ Monit Assess 188:640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan T, Mohammad S, Khan B, Khan H (2011) Investigating the levels of heavy metals in surface water of Shah Alam River (a tributary of River Kabul, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Asian J Earth Sci 44:71–79Google Scholar
  43. Kochkodan V, Darwish NB, Hilal N (2015) The chemistry of boron in water. In: Kabay N, Hilal N, Bryak M (eds) Boron separation processes. Elsevier, The Netherlands, pp 35–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kopp JF (1969) The occurrence of trace elements in water. In: Hemphill DD (ed) Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Trace Substances in Environmental Health. University of Missouri, Columbia, pp 59–79Google Scholar
  45. Kopp JF, Kroner RC (1967) Trace metals in waters of the United States. A five year summary of trace metals in rivers and lakes of the United States (October 1, 1962 to September 30, 1967). United States Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  46. Kopp JF, Kroner RC (1970) Trace metals in waters of the United States. Report PB-215680. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  47. Korečková-Sysalová J (1997) Determination of beryllium in natural waters using atomic absorption spectrometry with tantalum-coated graphite tube. Int J Environ Anal Chem 68:397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lane TW, Morel FMM (2000) A biological function for cadmium in marine diatoms. Proc Natl Acad Sci 97:4627–4631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Laveroch MJ, Stephenson M, Macdonald CR (1995) Toxicity of iodine, iodide, and iodate to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Arch Environ Con Toxicol 29(3):344–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee JG, Roberts SB, Morel FMM (1995) Cadmium: a nutrient for the marine diatom Thelassiosira weissflogii. Limnol Oceanogr 40:1056–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lindemann MD, Cho JH, Wang MQ (2009) Chromium—an essential mineral. Rev Colom de Cien Pec 22:339–445Google Scholar
  52. Livingstone DA (1963) Chemical composition of rivers and lakes. Professional Paper 440-G, United States Geological Survey, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  53. Magazinovic RS, Nicholson BC, Mulcahy DE, Davey DE (2004) Bromide levels in natural waters: its relationship to chloride and total dissolved solids and the implications for water treatment. Chemosphere 57:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McBride MB (1989) Reactions controlling heavy metal solubility in soils. In: Stewart BA (ed) Advances in soil science. Springer, New York, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  55. McNevin AA, Boyd CE (2004) Copper concentrations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, ponds treated with copper sulfate. J World Aquacult Soc 35:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moore GT, Kellerman KF (1905) Copper as an algicide and disinfectant in water supplies. Bull Bur Ind 76:19–55Google Scholar
  57. Mu Y, Wu F, Chen C, Liu Y, Zhao X, Liao H, Giesy JP (2014) Predicting criteria continuous exposure concentrations of 34 metals or metalloids by use of quantitative ion character-activity relationships-species sensitivity distributions (QICAR-SSD) model. Environ Pollut 188:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nadis S (1998) Fertilizing the sea. Sci Am 177:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nagpal NK (2004) Technical report-water quality guidelines for cobalt. Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  60. Ning L, Liyuan Y, Jirui D, Xugui P (2011) Heavy metal pollution in surface water of Linglong gold mining area, China. Procedia Environ Sci 10:914–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pagenkopf GK (1978) Introduction to natural water chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Pais I, Jones JB Jr (1997) The handbook of trace elements. Saint Lucie Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  63. Palmer CA, Gilbert JA (2012) Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: the impact of fluoride on health. J Acad Nutr Diet 112:1443–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pinsino A, Matranga V, Roccheri MC (2012) Manganese: a new emerging contaminant in the environment. In: Srivastava J (ed) Environmental contamination. InTech Europe, Rijeka, pp 17–36Google Scholar
  65. Puntoriero ML, Volpedo AJ, Fernandez-Cirelli A (2014) Arsenic, fluoride, and vanadium in surface water (Chasicó Lake, Argentina). Front Environ Sci 2:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Reimer PS (1988) Environmental effects of manganese and proposed freshwater guidelines to protect aquatic life in British Columbia. Thesis, University of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  67. Ryan D (1992) Minor elements in seawater. In: Millero FJ (ed) Chemical oceanography. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 89–119Google Scholar
  68. Schiffer S, Karsten L (2017) Estimation of vanadium water quality benchmarks for protection of aquatic life with reference to the Athabasca Oil Sands region using species sensitivity distributions. Environ Toxicol Chem 36:3034–3044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seker S, Kutler B (2014) Determination of copper (Cu) levels for rivers in Tunceli, Turkey. World Environ 4:168–171Google Scholar
  70. Sheppard SC, Sheppard NI, Gallerand MO, Sanipelli B (2005) Deviation of ecotoxicity thresholds for uranium. J Environ Radioact 79:55–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sillén LG, Martell AE (1964) Stability constants for metal-ion complexes. Special Publication 17, Chemical Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Sillén LG, Martell AE (1971) Stability constants of metal-ion complexes. Special Publication 25, Chemical Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  73. Shiraishi K, Igarashi Y, Yamamoto M, Nakajima T, Los IP, Zelensky AV, Buzinny MZ (1994) Concentrations of thorium and uranium in freshwater samples collected in the former USSR. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 185:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spears JW (1984) Nickel as a “newer trace element” in the nutrition of domestic animals. J Anim Sci 59:823–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stralberg E, Varskog ATS, Raaum A, Varskog P (2003) Naturally occurring radio-nuclides in the marine environment—an overview by current knowledge with emphasis on the North Sea area. Norse Decom AS, Kjeller, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  76. Thoenen T, Hummel (2007) The PSI/Nogra chemical thermodynamic database (Update of the Nagra/PSI TDB 01/01: data selection for uranium. Paul Scherrer InstituteGoogle Scholar
  77. Turekian KK (1968) Oceans. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  78. USEPA (1986) Quality criteria for water. EPA 440/S-86-001. USEPA Office of Water, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  79. USEPA (2004) National recommended water quality criteria. USEPA Office of Water, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  80. USEPA (2007) Aquatic life ambient freshwater quality criteria: copper, EPA 822-R-07-001. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/copper/index.htm
  81. USEPA (2016) Aquatic life ambient water quality criterion for selenium—freshwater. USEPA Office of Water, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  82. USEPA (2018) Aquatic life criteria and methods for toxics. https://www.epa.gov/wqc/aquatic-life-criteria-and-methods-toxics
  83. Uthus EO (1992) Evidence for arsenic essentiality. Environ Geochem Health 14:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vrede T, Tranvik LJ (2006) Ion constraints on planktonic primary production in oligotrophic lakes. Ecosystems 9:1094–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wentz DA, Brigham ME, Chasar LC, Lutz MA, Krabbenholf DP (2014) Mercury in the nation’s steams—levels, trends, and implications. Circular 1395, US Geological Survey, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  86. Wisniak J (2002) The history of bromine from discovery to commodity. Indian J Chem Technol 9:262–271Google Scholar
  87. World Health Organization (2011) Selenium in drinking water. WHO/HSE/WSH/10.01/14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic SciencesAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

Personalised recommendations