Semantic Matching of Open Texts to Pre-scripted Answers in Dialogue-Based Learning

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11626)


Gamification is frequently employed in learning environments to enhance learner interactions and engagement. However, most games use pre-scripted dialogues and interactions with players, which limit their immersion and cognition. Our aim is to develop a semantic matching tool that enables users to introduce open text answers which are automatically associated with the most similar pre-scripted answer. A structured scenario written in Dutch was developed by experts for this communication experiment as a sequence of possible interactions within the environment. Semantic similarity scores computed with the SpaCy library were combined with string kernels, WordNet-based distances, and used as features in a neural network. Our experiments show that string kernels are the most predictive feature for determining the most probable pre-scripted answer, whereas neural networks obtain similar performance by combining multiple semantic similarity measures.


Answer matching Semantic similarity Natural Language Processing Neural network 



This activity has received funding from the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT). This body of the European Union receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. This research was also partially supported by the 644187 EC H2020 RAGE project.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity Politehnica of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Computer Science DepartmentUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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