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Theoretical Foundations: Management—Information Systems—Complexity

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Tactical Management in Complexity

Part of the book series: Contributions to Management Science ((MANAGEMENT SC.))


This chapter answers fundamental questions regarding the design of the artifact—the managerial method Denica for tactical management. Maybe the hardest to be written, because of the causal and complex interrelations among the three disciplines: management, information systems, and complexity, this chapter arguments which are the artifact’s main theoretical foundations (Complex Adaptive Systems, Purposive Adaptability, Uncertainty and Unpredictability, Information Systems), how tactical management influences the expectations of the design performance and what is the basic selected course of action with the Sense-and-Respond framework, that fits the criteria and expectations set up in Chap. 2.

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  1. 1.

    Role, in sociology, is the behavior expected of an individual who occupies a given social position or status. A role is a comprehensive pattern of behavior that is socially recognized, providing a means of identifying and placing an individual in a society. It also serves as a strategy for coping with recurrent situations and dealing with the roles of others (e.g., parent–child roles). The term, borrowed from theatrical usage, emphasizes the distinction between the actor and the part. A role remains relatively stable even though different people occupy the position: any individual assigned the role of physician, like any actor in the role of Hamlet, is expected to behave in a particular way. An individual may have a unique style, but this is exhibited within the boundaries of the expected behavior. Role expectations include both actions and qualities: a teacher may be expected not only to deliver lectures, assign homework, and prepare examinations but also to be dedicated, concerned, honest, and responsible. Individuals usually occupy several positions, which may or may not be compatible with one another: one person may be husband, father, artist, and patient, with each role entailing certain obligations, duties, privileges, and rights vis-à-vis other persons.

  2. 2.


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Petrevska Nechkoska, R. (2020). Theoretical Foundations: Management—Information Systems—Complexity. In: Tactical Management in Complexity. Contributions to Management Science. Springer, Cham.

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