Appraisal Rights in the US and the EU

  • Alexandros SeretakisEmail author
Part of the Studies in European Economic Law and Regulation book series (SEELR, volume 17)


Appraisal rights, a protection mechanism for minority shareholders, have recently captured the attention of academics and policymakers. The rise of a new breed of hedge funds which specialize in so-called appraisal arbitrage has resulted in a spectacular increase in appraisal petitions in connection with M&A transactions in the US and has led to calls for a tighter regulation of the appraisal remedy. Despite the growing popularity of appraisal rights in the US, this protection mechanism remains underutilized by shareholders in the EU. After discussing the general framework for merger transactions in the US and the EU, the present chapter will seek to offer an examination of appraisal rights in the US and the EU. Furthermore, it will discuss how shareholders, and in particular hedge funds, exploit the appraisal remedy in order to reap profits and assess the dangers posed by this practice. Finally, the chapter will seek to decipher the factors that have led to the growing use of the appraisal remedy in the US and its underutilization in EU.



I would like to thank participants at the “Cross-Border Mergers Directive: EU perspectives and national experiences” conference, in particular Arkadiusz Radwan and Thomas Papadopoulos, for useful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Trinity College Dublin, School of LawDublinIreland

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