A Fast 3D Finite-Element Solver for Large-Scale Seismic Soil Liquefaction Analysis
The accumulation of spatial data and development of computer architectures and computational techniques raise expectations for large-scale soil liquefaction simulations using highly detailed three-dimensional (3D) soil-structure models; however, the associated large computational cost remains the major obstacle to realizing this in practice. In this study, we increased the speed of large-scale 3D soil liquefaction simulation on computers with many-core wide SIMD architectures. A previous study overcame the large computational cost by expanding a method for large-scale seismic response analysis for application in soil liquefaction analysis; however, that algorithm did not assume the heterogeneity of the soil liquefaction problem, resulting in a load imbalance among CPU cores in parallel computations and limiting performance. Here we proposed a load-balancing method suitable for soil liquefaction analysis. We developed an efficient algorithm that considers the physical characteristics of soil liquefaction phenomena in order to increase the speed of solving the target linear system. The proposed method achieved a 26-fold increase in speed over the previous study. Soil liquefaction simulations were performed using large-scale 3D models with up to 3.5 billion degrees-of-freedom on an Intel Xeon Phi (Knights Landing)-based supercomputer system (Oakforest-PACS).
KeywordsSoil liquefaction Fast and scalable solver Large-scale analysis Finite-element method
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