An Agent-Based Model for Evaluating the Boarding and Alighting Efficiency of Autonomous Public Transport Vehicles

  • Boyi Su
  • Philipp AndelfingerEmail author
  • David Eckhoff
  • Henriette Cornet
  • Goran Marinkovic
  • Wentong Cai
  • Alois Knoll
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11536)


A key metric in the design of interior layouts of public transport vehicles is the dwell time required to allow passengers to board and alight. Real-world experimentation using physical vehicle mock-ups and involving human participants can be performed to compare dwell times among vehicle designs. However, the associated costs limit such experiments to small numbers of trials. In this paper, we propose an agent-based simulation model of the behavior of passengers during boarding and alighting. High-level strategical behavior is modeled according to the Recognition-Primed Decision paradigm, while the low-level collision-avoidance behavior relies on an extended Social Force Model tailored to our scenario. To enable successful navigation within the confined space of the vehicle, we propose a mechanism to emulate passenger turning while avoiding complex geometric computations. We validate our model against real-world experiments from the literature, demonstrating deviations of less than 11%. In a case study, we evaluate the boarding and alighting times required by three autonomous vehicle interior layouts proposed by industrial designers.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boyi Su
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philipp Andelfinger
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David Eckhoff
    • 1
    • 3
  • Henriette Cornet
    • 1
  • Goran Marinkovic
    • 1
  • Wentong Cai
    • 2
  • Alois Knoll
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.TUMCREATE Ltd.SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Technische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

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