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Image-Based Target Detection and Tracking Using Image-Assisted Robotic Total Stations

Chapter

Abstract

Robotic total stations are modern geodetic multi-sensor systems measuring horizontal and vertical angles as well as distances using time-of-flight methods, thus delivering 3D coordinates for static as well as moving objects. Automatic target detection (by rough and fine pointing techniques) and tracking are standard techniques if the objects are signalized with reflectors, and the total station is motorized. Nowadays, these instruments are additionally equipped with one or two cameras to generate images mainly for documentation purposes. This paves the way to detect and track objects that are not signalized by reflectors. Photogrammetric techniques such as SURF (speeded-up robust feature) or SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform) are applied for the detection of special, recognizable object features in the images. The pixel coordinates of these features result in vertical and horizontal angles if the parallaxes between the camera optical center and the total station origin are known or calibrated. If the features are extracted in a sequence of images, the movement of any object can be tracked automatically. For the position determination, reflector-less distance measurement from the total station to the object is additionally required. Until now, this was realized only for static objects. In this contribution, an example of a kinematic application is also shown. The quality of these tracking procedures may be verified by an instrument of higher accuracy. At the end of this contribution, a procedure using laser tracker is presented.

Keywords

Robotic total stations Image processing Time-of-flight Speeded-up robust feature Scale-invariant feature transform Object detection Object tracking 

Abbreviations

3D

Three dimensional

Spatial extent, concerning the three dimensions/axis: x, y, z

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

CCD

Charge-coupled device

Light-sensitive chip

CMOS

Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor

Light-sensitive chip

EDM

Electronic distance measurement

Distance measurements based on a modulated infrared light beam

FoV

Field of vision

Visible part by the use of a telescope

Hz

Horizontal

Concerns the spatial orientation and extension

IATS

Image-assisted total station

Geodetic measurement device, extended by camera and laser scanner

ID

Identifier

Unique tag feature

LED

Light-emitting diode

MSAC

M-estimator sample consensus

Filtering algorithm to avoid gross errors and increase the robustness

MPixel

Mega pixel

1 × 106 pixel

PC

Personal computer

RMS

Root mean square

RTS

Robotic total station

Geodetic measurement device

SIFT

Scale-invariant feature transform

Image processing algorithm

SURF

Speeded-up robust feature

Image processing algorithm

UAV

Unmanned air vehicle

UGV

Unmanned ground vehicle

V

Vertical

Concerns the spatial orientation and extension

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Engineering Geodesy, University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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