Skip to main content

Mobility-as-a-Service: A Critical Review and the Generalized Multi-modal Transport Experience

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNISA,volume 11577)


Considering MaaS still lacks a widely accepted definition, several pilots were launched without a solid reference, which has given rise to an unclear situation in market. This paper aims to help researchers and stakeholders to have an overall comprehension of MaaS and grasp a critical review on present concept by analysing the generalized multi-modal transport experience, service offerings of MaaS pilots and the knowledge raise by researchers and academic organizations, and then to summarize an generalized user experience map base on Multi-Level Service Design (MSD) model to narrow down the concept boundary and support further User-centred Design related researches.


  • Mobility-as-a-Service
  • Urban transport
  • Service design

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22580-3_15
  • Chapter length: 21 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-22580-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.

(Source: Ecosystem report, synocus oy)

Fig. 2.

(Source: Expert panel workshop, expert interview, and CVA analysis)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 11.


  • Botsman, R., Rogers, R.: What’s Mine is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption is Changing the Way We Live, vol. 5. Collins, London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • Felson, M., Spaeth, J.L.: Community structure and collaborative consumption: a routine activity approach. Am. Behav. Sci. 21(4), 614–624 (1978)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heikkilä, S.: Mobility as a Service-A proposal for action for the public administration. Case Helsinki (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Hietanen, S.: Mobility as a service. New Transp. Model 2–4 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jennia, E., Akia, A., Lassea, N., Janab, S., MariAnneb, K., Davidc, K.: The European roadmap 2025 for mobility as a service. In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena, TRA 2018 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  • Kamargianni, M., Li, W., Matyas, M., Schäfer, A.: A critical review of new mobility services for urban transport. Transp. Res. Procedia 14, 3294–3303 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kamargianni, M., Matyas, M., Li, W., Schäfer, A.: Feasibility Study for “Mobility as a Service” concept in London. UCL Energy Institute (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  • Karlsson, I.M., Sochor, J., Strömberg, H.: Developing the ‘Service’ in mobility as a service: experiences from a field trial of an innovative travel brokerage. Transp. Res. Procedia 14, 3265–3273 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • MaaSLab: The MaaS Dictionary (2018).

  • Maglio, P.P., Vargo, S.L., Caswell, N., Spohrer, J.: The service system is the basic abstraction of service science. Inf. Syst. e-Bus. Manag. 7(4), 395–406 (2009)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Matyas, M.B., Kamargianni, M.: A Holistic Overview of the Mobility-as-a-Service. Hungarian Transport Research Conference, March 2017

    Google Scholar 

  • Motta, G., Ferrara, A., Sacco, D., You, L., Cugola, G.: Integrated mobility: a research in progress. J. Softw. Eng. Appl. 6(03), 97 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patrício, L., Fisk, R.P., Falcão e Cunha, J., Constantine, L.: Multilevel service design: from customer value constellation to service experience blueprinting. J. Serv. Res. 14(2), 180–200 (2011)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poliaková, B.: Key success factors of integrated transport systems. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication (RelStat 13), Riga, Latvia, pp. 83–90. Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Riga, October 2013

    Google Scholar 

  • Schade, W., Krail, M., Kühn, A.: New mobility concepts: myth or emerging reality. In: Transport Research Arena-TRA 2014, 5th Conference-Transport Solutions: From Research to Deployment, April 2014

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, G., Sochor, J., Karlsson, I.M.: Mobility as a service: development scenarios and implications for public transport. Res. Transp. Econ. 69, 592–599 (2018)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sochor, J.L., Strömberg, H., Karlsson, M.: Travelers’ motives for adopting a new, innovative travel service: insights from the UbiGo field operational test in Gothenburg, Sweden. In: 21st World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems, Detroit, 7–11 September 2014 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sochor, J.L., Strömberg, H., Karlsson, M.: An innovative mobility service to facilitate changes in travel behavior and mode choice. In: 22nd World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Bordeaux, 5–9 October 2015 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  • The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET): Local Authority Guide to Emerging Transport Technology 2017–2018 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  • Transport System Catapult: Travellers Needs and UK Capability Study-Supporting the realization of Intelligent Mobility in the UK, October 2015.

  • Transport System Catapult: Mobility as a Service- Exploring the Opportunity for Mobility as a Service in the UK, July 2016.

  • Voorhees, C.M., et al.: Service encounters, experiences and the customer journey: defining the field and a call to expand our lens. J. Bus. Res. 79, 269–280 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yuanjun Li .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations


Appendix 1. Key Elements and Logics of MaaS MSD

figure a

Appendix 2. Decomposition of Customer Activities for Different Levels of MaaS User Experience

figure b

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Li, Y., May, A., Cook, S. (2019). Mobility-as-a-Service: A Critical Review and the Generalized Multi-modal Transport Experience. In: Rau, PL. (eds) Cross-Cultural Design. Culture and Society. HCII 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 11577. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-22579-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-22580-3

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)