1 Introduction

1.1 Sense of Smell

An introduction to our environment is through our senses. There is a deep and extensive discourse by many philosophers on the senses and their classification. Differentiating perception from sensation, Gibson emphasizes that a sense as a verb, has two meanings, firstly it is “to detect something” and secondly “to have a sensation” [1]. He explains, that the senses as perceptual systems, imply that senses detect something. Whereas Rodaway´s definition of perception is two-fold. One, perception as sensation where stimuli from environment gets mediated through senses and helps form a relationship between human and the environment. Secondly, perception as cognition where in it is culturally mediated in thinking processes, making associations and memories [2].

Smell molecules are usually invisible and are airborne. They come in contact with the olfactory receptors (organ for smelling) in the nasal cavity. When we inhale the air, we are able to detect smell. Olfaction is a chemoreception, that means the chemosignals are sent to the brain and in this process, the chemical composition is detected. On an average human beings can differentiate between ten thousand different smells, according to the pioneering works of Buck And AxelFootnote 1 [3]. Each receptor has a specialized function and detects some limited number of smells. According to Buck and Axel, the chemosignals or the information is passed through the neurons to the receptors and the olfactory bulb that is located in the limbic system which is known as the emotional center of the brain. The information is passed to other parts of the brain to form a pattern and these patterns are recognized from previous memories of encounters with that particular smell.

On a broadly classified way there are five senses, where in sight, hearing, taste and touch comprised the four basic senses and the sense of smell according to Aristotle took a middle place connecting sight and hearing with taste and touch [4]. Sense of smell has taken a back seat in many areas and until today in the field of design there is a lack in understanding, vocabulary, methods and tools to work with smells. Stating the decline in importance of the sense of smell in the western culture since the start of the modern period, Classen quotes the arguments of few of the scholars who emphasize on the olfactory poverty and decline in the private and public spaces. Classen argues that it is not only the olfactory sense but also all the non-visual senses have declined when compared to sense of vision. She emphasizes the major difference in the sense of smell that was once a higher sense of spirituality and medicine in the pre-modern Europe is now being a “non-sense” in the modern western culture [3] and western culture is often reluctant to consider other dimensions that are, nevertheless, fundamental to the experience of architecture, design and habitation.

1.2 Smell and Space

Designing through the sense of smell means designing an experience. At this point, the question we ask is, how far have we in the western society developed our understanding for olfactory experience and encounter with the smells itself ? What differentiates us today in olfactory acceptance to the ancient societies in the premodern west? Designing with the non-visual sensory sensitivity and experience is not a commonly seen practice within the design studies and research that includes user experience especially in the fields of architecture and spatial designing in public and private spaces. However, Lally is convinced of the future areas of research that would incorporate the increased human body sensory sensitivity and the material energy for architectural applications [5]. Such as using artificial intelligence for augmenting the human senses to be able to understand our surroundings near and far better than, we are able to do so now. For example, to be able to hear certain frequencies that are below or higher than normal human audible frequencies.

Designing spatial qualities through the tangible and intangible materials essentially focuses on the human interactions in a space. Although the conventional choice of materials are their physical and visual attributes like color, pattern and textures, where invisible materiality like smell is seldom a design choice. What if we can add olfactory attributes by using smell as a material in spatial designing? What kind of interactions with smell will emerge in spaces? “Olfaction would seem to be largely extraneous to the formulation of spaces, and yet a careful reading of cognitive, perceptive, cultural, social, planning and anthropological phenomena would suggest that odors are not only profoundly inherent components of places, but at times actually essential to defining them” [6]. Smells can be a social tool for communication among human beings and also to interact with our immediate environment, like navigating through a space. Classen, suggests that in the ancient times, the senses were taken as a media for communication as opposed to the present day thinking of senses as passive recipients of the data. Especially the sense of smell in an Amazonian tribal culture by defining the tribes based on their odours, since each tribe smelled differently based on their customary eating habits and their hunting professions; such as one tribe did fishing and another hunted animals for the meat and a third tribe looked for the roots and plants [4], these social orders were communicated through the olfactory.

If the spaces could be designed using the sense of smell; boundaries, openings and closings of a space defined by smells could be a navigation tool. As an example, without having rigid hard walls, sometimes smells act like a wall, when it is foul smelling and one can hardly enter in that zone. However, the same quality of the smells could be used to create spatial cues for a visually impaired person and offer not just a guiding tool but also help navigating in a directional way, since smells gives a sense of position in relation to its source. Quoting Hall, Rodaway writes that different cultures define their olfactory experience differently in the context of geographical experiences [2]. The spatial concepts of depth, distance, openings and closing help to create a composition of a space in a metaphorical sense, according to Tufnell et al. [7], but also do so through subliminal and past experiences, wherein smells in a space may create boundaries or open up a space, setting a stage for making relationships within that contained space for example in a given space a particular smell reminds a person of an associated event with particular person/s back in time may open or close up a space for present and future encounters for the person.

Pallasmaa suggests that modern architectural theory and criticism has a strong tendency to regard space as an immaterial object that is delineated by material surfaces, instead of understanding space in terms of its dynamic interactions and interrelations. Japanese thinking, by contrast, is founded on a relational understanding of the concept of space [8].

Olfaction and its characteristics become a part of a smellscape, that in turn helps make a space - a place through olfactory memory, as smells are associative of materials, people and events in a particular time. Adaptive sensitivity of smells make sense of smell an important communication tool to respond to the changes in the near environment [2]. Also, through the smells of our own bodies and the spaces around us, we interact subliminally and communicate within our environment [9]. Smells make one linger on longer in a space, rather than making hurried steps and moving from point A to B in order to complete a business, spaces could provide an element of freedom of movement and composure [10] and an opportunity to discover a space which appears to be familiar due to its smells.

Using practice-based design research tools and methods, this paper explores olfactive interaction at an intersection of textiles, spatial and interaction design. In this paper, taking smell as a design material, methods of designing interactions through textiles in a spatial context are explored. The olfactive interactions are initiated by activating smells through the touch or the body movement. Surface textile processes like impregnation, coating and printing, are applied when investigating the applications of smell on the textiles. By using these methods, different textile expressions of smell for spatial interactions are proposed which can activate and release smells.

2 Design Examples

The following two interactive installations, Sight of Smell and Touch of Smell explore olfactive interactions through the touch of textiles. These textiles are treated with micro-encapsulated smells that gets released only upon physical interaction that break-opens the smell molecules. In the design example of Temporal textile interactions through dynamic forms, the final iteration combined smell induced yarns and the spacer knitting technique, creating a temporal form of origami folded knitted textile that is imbued with natural smells and embodies the concept of playing with and intensifying smells through haptic interactions. And the performance - Smell, space and Body Movement was carried out with a textile object that is designed by soaking the material in the synthetic smell molecules and is interacted-with through improvised dance movements.

2.1 Sight of Smell

This lighted installation evokes a visual interest from a distance. Only once approached inside in this created space, one realizes another spatial quality to it. The strings of balloons become the object of curiosity and with an intuitive reflex one tries to hold the strings (coated with microencapsulated smells) in the hand. Only with this physical interaction and touch, that the smells get activated. Since the micro-encapsulations are so designed that get broken with a physical abrasion, touch or rubbing, it then releases the smells in the space (Figs. 1 and 2).

Fig. 1.
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Sight of smell installation at the exhibition speculate, collaborate, define – textile thinking for future ways of living, the Textile Museum Borås, Sweden, 23 March–15 May 2017

Fig. 2.
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Expression of smell through haptic interactions

This expression of smell intrigues the senses and opens up the space for not only the soft transitions of movements through it but also for the interactions in the space through the tangible expression of smells.

2.2 Touch of Smell

How does it feel to touch a smell?

This installation is designed for a playful interaction through velcro tapes. Visitors interacted with this installation by touching, rubbing, sticking together, and peeling the loose ends of the velcro tapes across the corner of the walls, and thereby releasing the smells. The intensities of the smell could be experimented and played with, by varying the length of the tape and the speed at which they were peeled apart. Eucalyptus smell was used in this installation which was quite pleasant and almost all the visitors had some associations with the smell, this however was not planned in the designing nor it was important that the visitor is able to correctly determine what smell it is. However, it was playful for some visitors to be able to determine the smell and in doing so, the action of peeling and sticking across the tapes was multiplied (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
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Touch of smell installation at the exhibition speculate, collaborate, define – textile thinking for future ways of living, the Textile Museum Borås, Sweden, 23 March–15 May 2017

Fig. 4.
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(a–c) changes in installation over days “touch of smell”

The soft side of the velcro tapes were coated with the micro-encapsulated smells. The placement of these tapes alternated with the uncoated loop side of the velcro tapes. This logic was followed also in the colors across the whole corner installation. As a result, upon their placement from one wall of the corner to the other, the velcro tapes physically created a space that was on one hand difficult to de-entangle but on the other hand, quite inviting for further interaction (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5.
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Expression of smell through haptic interactions

Combining conventional textile materials and smart paints with micro-encapsulated smell molecules, these textile objects are designed to carry the smells in a discreet way. As a result, only through bodily interactions of touch and movement, embedded and enclosed smells on the textile objects are opened, released and transported in the space. By changing the scale, the purpose and the context of a two-dimensional material (velcro tapes) created an unexpected three-dimensionality; a space through the smells.

2.3 Temporal Textile Interactions Through Dynamic Forms

The aim in this project with the origami folded textiles was to translate the action of releasing smells through haptic interactions with the dynamic and playful origami folded textile structures. The design sample was developed using flatbed industrial knitting machine. The challenge was to design knitted textiles with integrated fold lines so that when the fabric is laid flat, it automatically takes on a three-dimensional, folded form, suggesting an interaction based around unfolding that releases the smells (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6.
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Temporal textile interactions through dynamic forms, origami paper fold sketches

This investigation followed on from an experimental workshop that explored various hand gestures and actions performed on natural materials like whole spices; cardamom, clove, cinnamon or fruits like oranges etc. to actuate smells. The action of unfolding and folding a textile was initially explored on paper in the form of three-dimensional sketches. Some of these were translated on the knitting software, wherein the lines of folds were crucial to investigating the automatic folding action. The fabrics were knitted using industrial knitting machines, with various stitch patterns and yarn materials explored in relation to enhancing the folding action. Through various iterations, it was then possible to define the folding pattern and combination of yarns that induced the optimal folding of the fabric (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7.
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Process of treating yarns with natural moss for impregnating the smells

In the final sample yarns were beforehand treated with natural moss and lichens as a natural dyeing process for textile materials. These yarn was provided by textile designer, Worbin [11]. The moss had been collected from the forest and therefore it did have some soil attached to the roots. The smell of this bath is a combination of moss greens, soil and some mushroom smells. The microorganisms present in soil could be a reason for the mushroom like smell [12], however, it is a pleasant smell and transports one back to the nature, in the forest. Provided one has experienced some walks in the forest in the past and is familiar with the natural smells of the moss and mushroom.

The final iteration combined smell induced yarns and the spacer knitting technique as shown in Figs. 8 and 9. Spacer technique involves knitting with yarn A on the two outer sides of the fabric and using yarn B to fill-in between two sides. This construction makes the fabric sturdy and gives it a structural character.

Fig. 8.
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Computer program for spacer construction of knitted textile

Fig. 9.
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Cross sectional view of the spacer knitted textile

This technique helped create a temporal form that is able to stand on its own as shown in Fig. 10, imbued with smells that embodied the concept of playing with and intensifying smells through haptic interaction.

Fig. 10.
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Folded knitted textile

2.4 Smell, Space and Body Movement

Yet another method of activating smells; i.e. through movement, is explored through a performance; Smell, space and body movement in collaboration with a dancer. As ephemeral are the smells so are the movements. Smells trace the movements or movement makes the smells perceivable. This exploration investigated actuating smells through body movement in a space. A dancer performed with textile objects as a medium to distribute the smells (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11.
figure 11

Performance smell space and body movement in collaboration with dancer, Giedre Kirkilyte - Jankauskiene, at Vilnius Academy of Arts and presented at an exhibition at the VAA Gallery, Vilnius, Lithuania November 28–December 2, 2016.

The textile object functioned as a free standing object in a space, and was not fixed at any point. The dancer interacted with this object, creating an artistic performance by exploring the object with regards to volume, shape, surface, size, and smell. She played with them, slipping, sliding, cuddling, curling, twisting, wrapping, fanning, pinching, pressing, releasing, rotating, and twirling, improvising her movements [9]. The movements of the dancer were based on the interaction with the textile object, as the object was bouncy in nature due to the materials used. Handling of the textile object and more importantly the smells emanating from the sponge directed the moves of the dancer.

The textile object was designed and knitted on an industrial flatbed machine for this exploration, and several two meter by two centimeter sponge strips were prepared in a bath of tatami (rice straw) smell, dried at room temperature, and inserted into tubular structures. The textile piece is a knitted tube and four meters long by twenty centimeters wide. Polyamide monofilament yarn was used to knit the textile structure and the textile object was made to be interactive. The tubular knitted panel was filled with two bunches of sponge strips, each of which was tied together at one end. The tied ends of the two bunches were then attached together head-on, and drawn through the tubular structure, such that the sponge strips protruded from both ends. The textile object has a spongy and resilient character to invite different ways of interactions with it.

The textile object allowed an interaction on a near-to-body scale, with the dancer improvising movements with the textile object as guided by smells. Through her movement in relation to the textile object the air in the space was moved and so the smells were too. The frequency – as to how often, with what intervals and with what intensity- these smells were spread in the space with the dancer’s movements seemed like an olfactory orchestra in a space. As the dancer moved with the object in the space, her steps back and forth and the textile object was swirled in the air, the smells get dispersed in the room at the intervals - somehow if one were to close the eyes and concentrate on the time difference between the whiffs of smell, one could relate that to the time that the dancer swirled the textile object in the air. The movement of the dancer were in harmony with the smells at times, where she walked in slow steps and at times she moved the textile object in a rather persistently fast and rhythmic movements. These changes in her movements had an immediate effect on the smells being dispersed in the room and therefore it reminded one of a symphony orchestra. From the dancers perspective, it was an intense interaction, as she could weave her way through the smells in the space and make smells follow her movements. In this way, her ephemeral movements transited to be perceived from being visual to olfactory sense.

3 Discussions

The above design examples are investigating tactile stimulations through textile textures, haptic gestures and movements of body to connect to the smells by actuating them with physical interaction. These examples actuate the smells through the touch. Different tactile sensations involved as muscle movements of skin, or the action of rubbing, pressing etc. are akin to Montagu’s explanation of the term haptic, which is a mentally extended sense of touch that comes to being through the experience of living in a space. Montagu argues that haptic is an acquired sense, in terms of the objects already been seen, touched and acted upon [13]. Through the interactions in these individual installations and design objects, although sensory stimuli are focused on touch and smells, we assimilate and understand our environment not exclusively through one sense, rather in a multi-sensorial way.

The sense of touch, is reaching out (extending oneself) with the body. According to Rodaway, there is a reciprocity of the haptic system that is three-fold; simple contact, exploratory activity and communication [2]. Through touch, one feels connected to the surroundings, people and community. This relationship gets manifested through the senses to (re)locate oneself geographically. In the above examples, touch is explored as a simple contact which is just one directional and as exploratory activity, where the visitor tries to find out how to explore with the textile installations. When the touch and reciprocal activity of opening and disseminating of smells is present, it is a two way process or communication in the interaction through touch.

Gibson argues that the senses should be conceived as active rather than passive. These should be interrelated and not exclusive and be taken as systems rather than channels for information of the environment [1]. Exemplifying the intimate relationship between the sense of taste and smell or tactile consciousness of vibrations and auditory experience, Rodaway writes that “sensuous experience is, in any case, often a complex of sense working together offering a range of clues about the environment through which the body is passing” [2]. Olfactory and haptic sensations are at an intimate distance to the body, and these two senses are essential to locate oneself in a space, distinguish danger in food or other beings (ibid). Also in certain ways there is an interaction with smells and sense of touch [14] where the smell stimuli may be experienced with facial nerves.

In the installation sight of smell, the visitors are moving through the space while being constantly “in touch” with the ribbons induced with the smell. At times the sense of touch is active and at times passive and so is the sense of smell. Very likely, both the sense of touch and smell are involuntary and cannot be shut off as we can do when closing our eyes or ears [14]. The interaction designed within this installation is an analogue and slow interaction that induces fluid movements through the space. The interaction can also be seen as time based, since the smell molecules upon being released are dynamic and random in their movement also in relation to the movement of the body (visitor) in the space. These smell molecules are perceived instantly and with high intensity just as they get released and slowly the perception is reduced as the molecules move away, and then randomly they appear again. Although, it is not just the movement of the smell molecules but also the nature of sense of smell that is adaptively sensitive due to familiarity [2]. These interactions are designed, to induce the movement and explore the space around the installation, perhaps trace the smells outside the installation space in relation to the thresholds and perception of smells.

Smell being an intimate sense, generates a local geography and also emotionally creates a bond between the person and the environment, and quite similar to the sense of touch there is a direct bonding between the body (chemical contact) and the space [2]. Through the olfactory experience, there is a bond and olfactory memory that is created and that is a relationship between the person to environment or person to person or another being as in case of an animal pet. The olfactory notes taking subliminal cues in the near environment of what is in the way and navigate the way through these cues would be of significance to the temporal spatial designing tools and methods. Designing with olfactive dimension in urban setting, would add to the wayfinding toolset for the people with visual disabilities where smells would help one navigate the space. Although above design examples are designed specifically for interactions in the interior spaces, the textural element that could be reached through the body (not just the hands) to actuate the smells could offer potentials of creating patterns for walking in a public space, where the smells get released by walking over the path in a similar intensity and pressure, as an example; walking twice in this pattern in a difference of a minute. This will not only create playful interactions in space, rather it would also lend time for the passersby to enjoy few moments of walking and creating a “signature smellscape”.

The design examples of tactile interactions in the installation touch of smell, and textile interactions through dynamic forms exemplify experience of space through olfactory embodied interactions. The Touch of Smell installation demanded from the visitors to apply some force while detangling or peeling off the velcro surfaces. Figure 4(a–c) shows difference in the installation as it had been interacted with over the time. Although the aim of the installation was not to collect data from the visitors, yet the installation was photographed randomly over days to watch if there are differences to note if it has been interacted with. In the last picture (c) it is evident that the force applied for pulling was sometimes even stronger than expected as some of the velcro strips came out of the wall leaving a mark behind. Here the tactile sensations on the soft side of the velcro (containing smells) are different than on the loop side of the velcro (help peeling off micro-encapsulations). Active touching and peeling of the velcro tapes leads to the dissemination of the smells in the space. Textile interactions through dynamic forms, enables one to engage in the act of folding and unfolding through hands and by that experience the smells that get disseminated from the textile object. The perception of smells at this closer scale to the body would be varied depending on many factors. Firstly, the act of folding and unfolding is each time different, and therefore the dissemination differs. Secondly, the ambient conditions of flow of air, moisture levels and room temperature would make a difference in the perception of smells. Thirdly, the familiarity of smell would bring in the habitation and thereby reduce the perception of smell. Unlike the embodied interactions as we know in ubiquitous way with the computer systems, these are physical, analogue and embodied interactions with the materials and backwards. It is to explore how to design responsive materials and design systems in our living environment. Here both the sense of touch and smell are active during the interaction with the textile and are equally motivating the visitor to engage themselves interacting with the textile objects.

Through the active physical interaction with the textile objects combined with ambient conditions where the sensory inputs of touch (texture, air flow, temperature change and humidity) and smell create embodied interactions and spatial experiences. This interaction is not a typical computer-human interaction, rather the information of the environmental changes like in air-flow or temperature is delivered through visual and non-visual cues [15] is interesting to design new digital experiences. Since the sense of smell is passive and working in the background, this sensory stimuli can be used to design subtle cues to help us navigate in our environment. As a future research, this could be explored by developing ‘tactile smell maps’ layered on digital street maps. Adding the dimension of smells to the maps, for browsing the cities would make it more interactive and attractive especially for pedestrians and cyclists, and add quality to ways of living within Urbanscapes [9]. Such as creating real-time geo-mapping in the pedestrian and biker lanes in an urban setting. The computational technology informs of the olfactive walking or biking trail using augmented reality as an example and where the biking tracks and walking paths are designed with embedded smells, so that walking or riding on these paths would actuate the smells. In addition, natural smells could be added by planting trees and floral beds around the pedestrian and biking paths in the city. Taking inspiration from the fragrance gardens or the designed gardens for the blind where certain herbs were planted that would release the odor only upon touching specifically actions like either rubbing or crushing [16]. In this way, the urban landscape or the real physical environment would be a collaborator with the digital tools and computing systems to have an impact in experiencing the environment in a multisensorial way. Playful interactions in the physical world would take precedence over the digital interfaces, the computational tools are important guiding tools to such experiences, however, by remaining in the background.

Also, through the body movements and the air that shifts around the dancer interacts in the space with the smell as she follows the smells. This dual tracing of smell movement is creating a relationship of the body and material in the space and also opens the space for encounters. As Rodaway emphasizes on the role of smells in geographical experience - which is the organization of space and spatial relationships, orientation in the space and relationship to a place with its smell characterization. This collaborative work with dancer, helps put the movement of smells in relation to the body in perspective and this interactive relationship in a space is an interesting element to designing spaces.

Smellscapes as designed by the urban planner Henshaw [17] and artist Mclean [18] define and articulate the experiences of being in these particular cities through the joint narratives and memories of the people, events and places. Although the combined memories of a place or the way one feels of being in a certain space and time are solely not very idiosyncratic, rather these can also be a shared memory and space through the chemosignals. Chemosignals through which animals and also humans communicate [19] are present in our daily living environment and situations. Due to the perceptible connection of chemosignals between the humans, when these chemosignals are left in the space by one person and get picked up by another person even after a long difference of time, therefore sometimes it can make a person embody a certain emotion left in the space by someone else. Utilizing sensory sensitive information [5] of near environments such as living and working spaces and perceived through our bodies and skins is the next step in designing spaces that extend beyond the physical boundaries of architecture as we know it today.

4 Potentials of Designing Interactions Through Smells

Physical spaces today, are becoming more of a misfit in the light of changing human behavior induced by new technology that keeps our sense of vision and hearing overly stimulated and occupied, architectural elements or vegetation (bushes, trees etc.) in the public spaces become more like a hindrance when one walks while looking only downwards to the digital device. The connections and bonding between the person and the environment are not yet possible in human-computer interactions, since sight and hearing are termed as abstract senses and miss the direct contact. As smell and touch are intimate senses, as these are in reach of the body, whereas sight and hearing are distant senses, where the perception of the environment happens beyond the reach of the body [2]. In the definition of embodied interaction as defined by Dourish, an interaction with the computer systems that occupy our world of physical and social reality [15], the dimensions of smell and touch are a missing piece to make these human-computer interactions as rich as our real physical world. As smell and touch are intimate senses, they not only create a sense of position (geography) but also an emotional bond between the person and the environment [2].

Human-computer interactions that only incorporate the visual and auditory stimulants engaging the attention of the people through the smart devices, dis-engages people from the real physical environment at the same time. Therefore designing interactions for daily living situations, where the focus of the interaction design is on the connectedness to the real physical environment, would be beneficial if the computational technology is in the background rather than being in the forefront [20].

Akin to the above, Dourish uses tangible computing as an overarching term for the computation that is embedded in everyday objects and experiences of the real physical and social world. Among approaches in his suggested investigations, interacting directly through the physical artefacts to inform the computational activities [15] is of a great value for designing multi-sensory experiences that are tangible and also intangible by the way of sensory stimuli.

With a perspective to design experiences in the physical public spaces made for today’s scenarios where HCI, AI and AR/VR is a big part of our lives, these spaces would be very different than the status quo. Here, the temporality of a space becomes an interesting concept, as it can help engage the attention of the people with multi-sensorial inputs in that little time and space (Fig. 12).

Fig. 12.
figure 12

Proposed expression of a smell scape in a space

Spaces could have a deeper connection to the inhabitants and a perceptual depth [21] when designing through sensory-sensitive thinking, where smell is an invisible matter to the eyes, but not for the olfactory sense. It is highly intriguing to aesthetically design with smells, with their movements and flow be orchestrated in the space in relation to the body and spatial interactions. Understanding the dynamic characteristic of smells, from their existence in nature, for example in trees, plants, flowers, fruits etc., smells are never obtrusive on the dimension of time, by being equally perceptible all at the same time, rather, these get released as part of a natural process. It unfurls slowly and gets carried away with the flow of air and the intensity of the smell varies when the temperature and humidity level changes.

This paper proposes a potential framework for future research for new ways of designing spaces where it is about slow technology. As an agenda for an interdisciplinary design research based on the design example of Smell, Space and Body movement, can be tracing the patterns of flow of smell molecules in a given space with the help of computational fluid dynamics. This research would be essential to design smellscapes based on the presence of people and their movement in the space (interior or outside). Also, by varying the design drivers such as airflow, temperature and humidity these digital tools could add to the quality of life in terms of facilitating social interactions in public spaces. Hallnäs suggests focus on presence of time to be essential in designing of the computational things, where design is for reflective use rather than for the efficiency which relates to disappearance of time [20] and where the human-computer interactions could connect the physical spaces with the digital spaces, in bringing about everyday life experiences through our senses mediated with the objects and materials in our environment, tangible interactions based on familiarity similar to the social interaction in the real physical world [15]. Through the textile interactions in the discussed design examples, it is the expression of interaction [22] that brings forward the olfactory expressions and potential interactions through our everyday objects and surroundings.