Hydrochemical Assessment of Groundwater Within the Lower Wadi Ranyah, Western Saudi Arabia Using Multivariate Statistical Technique

  • Hassan A. SaleemEmail author
  • Mohammed O. Alharbi
  • Ali M. Subyani
Part of the Regional Geology Reviews book series (RGR)


Wadi Ranyah is located in arid region of Western mountains of Saudi Arabia, which is a highly potential resource of both surface and groundwater. This shallow aquifer is highly demanding and it is subjected to intense exploitation due to the influence of human activities. The lower part of Wadi Ranyah undergoes increasing salinity and significant decline in water level. Therefore, how these processes impact groundwater quality. Multivariate statistical methods, Piper diagram and sodium adsorption ratio employed in this paper. A collection of 18 groundwater samples are analyzed for a total of 26 variables for both major and trace elements for groundwater assessment. Results showed that Piper diagram were used revealing water chemistry is of Calcium-Bicarbonate type. R- and Q-modes of cluster analysis illustrate rock interaction and human activities as two distinctive sources of water quality. Three main principal components influenced the water chemistry in Wadi Ranyah. In addition, salinity increases with HCO3, SO4, Cl and Ca for drinking water.


Ground water chemistry Multivariate analysis Wadi Ranyah Saudi Arabia 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan A. Saleem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammed O. Alharbi
    • 1
  • Ali M. Subyani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HydrogeologyKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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