Advertisement

Stasis and Change: Russia and the Emergence of an Anti-hegemonic World Order

  • Richard SakwaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter argues that after a quarter century of stasis, the pattern of world order is changing and the inter-cold war period of the cold peace is giving way not to a thaw, but to the re-entrenchment of bipolar confrontation between the expansive liberal international order and the resistance of a group of states, including Russia. Like the First Cold War, the second is also about the conflicting views of world order as the US-led liberal international order is challenged by the emergence of a putative anti-hegemonic alignment between Russia, China and their allies in the emerging alternative architecture of world affairs—especially the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). The clash between Russia and the West, in this sense, is only an early version—and ultimately perhaps not the most significant—of the challenges against the long-term stasis in international affairs.

Keywords

Russia-West relations Stasis Anti-hegemonic world order Second Cold War Neo-revisionism 

References

  1. Acharya, Amitav. 2017. After Liberal Hegemony: The Advent of a Multiplex World Order. Ethics and International Affairs, September 8. https://www.ethicsandinternationalaffairs.org/2017/multiplex-world-order
  2. Averre, Derek, and Lance Davies. 2015. Russia, Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Syria. International Affairs 91 (4): 813–834.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carothers, Thomas, and Frances Z. Brown. 2018. Can U.S. Democracy Policy Survive Trump? Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 1. https://carnegieendowment.org/2018/10/01/can-u.s.-democracy-policy-survive-trump-pub-77381
  4. Dunne, Tim, and Christian Reut-Smith, eds. 2017. The Globalization of International Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Flockhart, Trine. 2016. The Coming Multi-Order World. Contemporary Security Policy 37 (1): 3–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2016.1150053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forsberg, Tuomas, and Hiski Haukkala. 2016. The European Union and Russia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hahn, Gordon. 2018. Trump-Putin Summit. Russian and Eurasian Politics, July 5. https://gordonhahn.com/2018/07/05/trump-putin-summit.
  8. Hurrell, Andrew. 2006. Hegemony, Liberalism and Global Order: What Space for Would-be Great Powers? International Affairs 82 (1): 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00512.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikenberry, G. John, ed. 2011. International Relations Theory and the Consequences of Unipolarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kissinger, Henry. 2014. World Order: Reflections on the Character of Nations and the Course of History. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  11. Kremlin.ru. 2018. News Conference Following the BRICS Summit. July 27. http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/58119
  12. Larson, Deborah Welch, and Alexei Shevchenko. 2003. Shortcut to Greatness: The New Thinking and the Revolution in Soviet Foreign Policy. International Organization 57 (1): 77–109.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818303571028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maas, Anne-Sophie. 2016. EU-Russia Relations, 1999–2015: From Courtship to Confrontation. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MacFarlane, S. Neil. 2006. The ‘R’ in BRICs: Is Russia an Emerging Power? International Affairs 82 (1): 41–57.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00514.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mearsheimer, John J. 2014a. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2014b. Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault: The Liberal Delusions That Provoked Putin. Foreign Affairs 93 (5): 77–89.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21598282.2017.1316436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2018. The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities. London/New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Milward, Alan. 2000. The European Rescue of the Nation State. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Panarin, Alexander. 1998. Revansh istorii: Rossiyskaya strategicheskaya initsiativa v XXI veke. Moscow: Logos.Google Scholar
  20. Pouliot, Vincent. 2010. International Security in Practice: The Politics of NATO-Russia Diplomacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. RT. 2018. BRICS Trade Surges by 30% as Global Market Influence of Developing Economies Grows – Putin. July 26. https://www.rt.com/business/434330-russia-brics-trade-economy
  22. Sakwa, Richard. 2008. ‘New Cold War’ or Twenty Years’ Crisis? Russia and International Politics. International Affairs 84 (2): 241–267.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2008.00702.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. ———. 2017. Russia Against the Rest: The Post–Cold War Crisis of World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Savranskaya, Svetlana, and Tom Blanton. 2017. NATO Expansion: What Gorbachev Heard. National Security Archive of George Washington University, December 12. https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/russia-programs/2017-12-12/nato-expansion-what-gorbachev-heard-western-leaders-early
  25. Savranskaya, Svetlana, Thomas Blanton, and Vladislav Zubok, eds. 2010. Masterpieces of History: The Peaceful End of the Cold War in Europe, 1989. Budapest/New York: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, Martin A. 2013. Russia and Multipolarity since the End of the Cold War. East European Politics 29 (1): 36–51.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2013.764481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sokov, Nikolai. 2018. The Putin-Trump Summit: In Helsinki, Three Worldviews Will Clash. The National Interest, July 15. https://nationalinterest.org/feature/putin-trump-summit-helsinki-three-worldviews-will-clash-25766
  28. Stuenkel, Oliver. 2016. Post-Western World: How Emerging Powers Are Remaking Global Order. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  29. Suzuki, Shoigu. 2008. Seeking ‘Legitimate’ Great Power Status in Post–Cold War International Society: China’s and Japan’s Participation in UNPKO. International Relations 22 (1): 45–63. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0047117807087242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toloraya, George. 2018. BRICS and the World Order. Valdai Club, July 25. http://valdaiclub.com/a/highlights/brics-and-the-world-order
  31. Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46 (2): 391–425.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wohlforth, William C., and Vladislav Zubok. 2017. An Abiding Antagonism: Realism, Idealism, and the Mirage of Western-Russian Partnership After the Cold War. International Politics 54 (4): 405–419.  https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-017-0046-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of KentCanterburyUK

Personalised recommendations