• Teodor Gotszalk
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 573)


Nanotechnology, as the scientific and technological discipline dealing with the design, fabrication and application of systems whose dimensions or tolerances are in the domain of nanometers, is becoming increasingly important in many industrial and scientific areas. Nanotechnologies and nanoscience are triggered by diverse fields and applications but on the other hand, they trigger by themselves future industrial and practical solutions. One of the most important challenges observed nowadays in nanotechnology is driving the manufacturing processes to sub-nm accuracy level for critical features and positioning tasks.



This work was supported by the Wrocław University of Science and Technology (WUST) statutory grant. The author would like to thank all the coworkers of the Nanometrology Division of the Faculty of Microsystems Electronics and Photonics at the WUST for their support and collaboration.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teodor Gotszalk
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipto. ElettronicaWrocław University of Science and TechnologyWrocławPoland

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