Advertisement

Arsenic Contamination of Soil in Relation to Water in Northeastern South Africa

Chapter
  • 237 Downloads
Part of the Advances in Water Security book series (AWS)

Abstract

Little is known about the arsenic contamination of soil in relation to water in South Africa. In fact, there is a gap in knowledge about the topic as far as Africa as a whole is concerned. This chapter addresses the limited information on the presence and threat of arsenic in South Africa’s environment. The focus of this chapter is on soil (and indirectly water) contamination in the former Venda tribal area in northeastern South Africa where for many decades the apartheid government used arsenic-based dip solutions to treat East Coast Fever among cattle. Soil samples taken at 5-m, 20-m and 100-m at a depth of 300-mm from 10 old dip tanks revealed 11 readings above 2.0 mg/kg and 2 readings above 30 mg/kg. We found that these old contaminated dip sites were not rehabilitated and that houses are now being built as close as 50-m from the centers of contamination. It is clear that the problem of arsenic contamination of soil and water in South Africa, a water scarce country, deserve more attention from researchers and the various levels of government.

References

  1. Abdel-Moati AR (1990) Speciation and behavior of arsenic in the Nile Delta lakes. Water Air Soil Pollut 51(1–2):117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahoulé DG, Lalanne F, Mendret J, Brosillon S, Maïga AH (2015) Arsenic in African waters: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 2015:226–3012Google Scholar
  3. Akabzaa TM, Yidana SM (2012) An integrated approach to environmental risk assessment of cumulatively impacted drainage basin from mining activities in southwestern Ghana. Environ Earth Sci 65(1):291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akabzaa TM, Banoeng-Yakubo BK, Seyire JS (2009a) Impact of mining activities on water resources in the vicinity of the Obuasi mine. West Afr J Appl Ecol 11(1):1–10Google Scholar
  5. Akabzaa TM, Jamieson HE, Jorgenson N, Nyame K (2009b) The combined impact of mine drainage in the Ankobra River Basin, SW Ghana. Mine Water Environ 28(1):50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akinsoji O, Fatoki OS, Ximba BJ, Opeolu BO, Olatunji OS (2013) Assessment of arsenic levels in Guguletu and Langa rivers in Cape Town, South Africa. Int J 8:1334–1340Google Scholar
  7. Amonoo-Neizer EH, Amekor EM (1993) Determination of total arsenic in environmental samples from Kumasi and Obuasi, Ghana. Environ Health Perspect 101(1):46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asante KA, Agusa T, Subramanian A, Biney CA, Tanabe S (2007) Contamination status of arsenic and other trace elements in drinking water and residents from Tarkwa, a historic mining township in Ghana. Chemosphere 66(8):1513–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asubiojo OI, Nkono NA, Ogunsua AO, Oluwole AF, Ward NI, Akanle OA, Spyrou NM (1997) Trace elements in drinking and groundwater samples in Southern Nigeria. Sci Total Environ 208(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ATSDR (2000) Toxicological profile for arsenic. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumah R, Petrusevski B, Schippers J (2008) Presence of arsenic, iron and manganese in groundwater within the gold-belt zone of Ghana. J Water Supply Res Technol 57(7):519–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beinart W (2003) The rise of conservation in South Africa: settlers, livestock and environment 1770–1950. Oxford University Press, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharya P, Sracek O, Eldvall B, Asklund R, Barmen G, Jacks G, Koku J, Gustafsson J-E, Singh N, Balfors BB (2012) Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana. J Afr Earth Sci 66–67:72–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Botes E, Van Heerden E, Littawer D (2007) Hyper-resistance to arsenic in bacteria isolated from antimony mining in South Africa: research in action. S Afr J Sci 103(7–8):279–281Google Scholar
  15. Bowell RJ, Warren A, Minjera HA, Kimaro N (1995) Environmental impact of former gold mining on the Orangi River, Serengeti NP, Tanzania. Biogeochemistry 28(3):131–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cranefield PF (1991) Science and empire: East Coast Fever in Rhodesia and the Transvaal. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies B (2004) Veterinary pioneers: the story of Allerton Veterinary Laboratory. Natalia 34:62–69Google Scholar
  18. Dsikowitzky L, Mengesha M, Dadebo E, de Carvalho CEV, Sindern S (2013) Assessment of heavy metals in water samples and tissues of edible fish species from Awassa and Koka Rift Valley Lakes, Ethiopia. Environ Monit Assess 185(4):3117–3131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dzoma BM, Moralo RA, Motsei LE, Ndou RV, Bakunzi FR (2010) Preliminary findings on the levels of five heavy metals in water, sediments, grass and various specimens from cattle grazing and watering in potentially heavy metal polluted areas of north west province of South Africa. J Anim Vet Adv 9(24):3026–3033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El Hachimi ML, El Hanbali M, Fekhaoui M, Bouabdli A, EL Founti A, Saïdi N (2005) Impact d’un site minier abandonné sur l’ environnement: cas de la Zeïda (HauteMoulouya, Maroc). Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat 27:93–100Google Scholar
  21. El Hachimi ML, El Founti L, Bouadbli A, Saidi N, Fekhoui M, Tassé N (2007) Pb et As dans des eaux alcalines minières: contamination, comportement et risques (mine abandonnée de Zeïda, Maroc). Review des Sciences de l’Eau 20(1):1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fatoki OS, Akinsoji OS, Ximba BJ, Olujimi O, Ayanda OS (2013) Arsenic contamination: Africa the missing gap. Asian J Chem 25(16):9263–9268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fletcher WA (2000) A guide to practical cattle control in Southern Africa. CPD Printers, SandtonGoogle Scholar
  24. Gbadebo AM (2005) Arsenic pollution in aquifers located within limestone areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. In: Natural arsenic in groundwater: proceedings of the Pre-Congress Workshop ‘Natural Arsenic in Groundwater’, 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 18–19 August 2004. CRC Press, London, pp 85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guha Mazumder DN, Gosh A, Majumdar KK, Gosh N, Saha C, Guha Mazumder RN (2010) Arsenic contamination of ground water and its health impact on population of district, of Nadia, West Bengal, India. Indian J Community Med 35:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hammerbeck ECI (1998) Arsenic. In: The mineral resources of South Africa: handbook 16. Council for Geoscience, Silverton, pp 40–45Google Scholar
  27. Higy C, Cordey L (2011) Analyse de la qualité de l’eau de puits transformes. Un exemple d’application au Bénin, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  28. Horn AC (1998) Tshwane, Pretoria, Phelindaba: structure-agency interaction and the transformation of a South African region up to 1994, with prospects for the immediate future. Unpublished PhD thesis, supervised by PS Hattingh. University of Pretoria, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  29. Huntsman-Mapila P, Mapila T, Letshwenyo M, Wolski P, Hemond C (2006) Characterization of arsenic occurrence in the water and sediments of the Okavango Delta, NW Botswana. Appl Geochem 21(8):1376–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jannalagadda SB, Nenzou G (1996) Studies on arsenic rich mine dumps: III. Effect on river water. J Environ Sci Health A 31(10):2547–2555Google Scholar
  31. Kassenga GR, Mato RR (2009) Arsenic contamination levels in drinking water sources in mining areas in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania, and its removal using stabilized ferralsols. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2(4):389–400Google Scholar
  32. Kempster PL, Silberbauer M, Kühn A (2007) Interpretation of drinking water quality guidelines – the case of arsenic. Water SA 33(1):95–100Google Scholar
  33. Kortatsi BK, Asigbe J, Dartey GA, Tay C, Anornu GK, Hayford E (2008a) Reconnaissance survey of arsenic concentration in ground-water in south-eastern Ghana. West Afr J Appl Ecol 13(1):16–26Google Scholar
  34. Kortatsi BK, Tay CK, Anornu G, Hayford E, Dartey GA (2008b) Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater in the lower Offin basin, Ghana. Environ Geol 53(8):1651–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Korte NE, Fernando Q (1991) A review of arsenic (III) in groundwater. Crit Rev Environ Control 21:1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kusimi JM, Kusimi BA (2012) The hydrochemistry of water resources in selected mining communities in Tarkwa. J Geochem Explor 112:252–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Linington PA (1949) Native administration in the Union of South Africa. Government Printers, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  38. Mampane L (2004) Dipping policy. Department of Agriculture, Limpopo Province, Polokwane, PolokwaneGoogle Scholar
  39. Mampane L (2011) Limpopo draft cattle dipping policy. Department of Agriculture, Limpopo Province, Polokwane, PolokwaneGoogle Scholar
  40. Marole LT (1967) Makhulukutu. Marole Book Depot, SibasaGoogle Scholar
  41. Mbeki G (1964) The peasants’ revolt. Peguin, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  42. McCarthy TS (2011) The impact of acid mine drainage in South Africa. S Afr J Sci 107(5/6):1–7. Art. #712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McLaren RG, Naidu R, Smith J, Tiller KG (1997) Fractionation and distribution of arsenic in soil contaminated by cattle dip. J Environ Qual 27:348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mkandawire T (2008) Quality of groundwater from shallow wells of selected villages in Blantyre District, Malawi. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 33(8):807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mladenov N, Wolski P, Hettiarachchi GM, Murray-Hudson M, Enriquez H, Damaraju S, Masamba W (2013) Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the mobility of arsenic in groundwater of a through-flow island in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. J Hydrol 518:326–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mukherjee A, Sengupta MK, Hossain MA, Ahamed S, Das B, Nayak B, Lodh D, Rahman MM, Chakraborti D (2006) Arsenic contaminations in groundwater: a global perspective with emphasis on the Asian scenario. J Health Popul Nutr 24(2):142–163Google Scholar
  47. Musingarimi W, Tuffin M, Cowan D (2010) Characterisation of the arsenic resistant genes in Bacillus sp. UWC isolated from maturing fly ash acid mine drainage neutralised solids. S Afr J Sci 106(1/2):1–5. Art. #17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. NASA, LC442/05 Ordinance No. 38 (1904) Ordinance to make further provision for preventing the spread of disease amongst cattle known as East Coast Fever. National Archives of South Africa, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  49. NASA, TAB-A341/15 (n.d.) Native Cattle and East Coast Fever. National Archives of South Africa, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  50. Nemudzivhadi MH (1985) Zwa Lini na Zwini: Thangela ya Ndavhuko ya History ya Vhavenda. Office of the President, Republic of Venda, ThohoyandouGoogle Scholar
  51. Niyobuhungiro R, Naidoo S, Dalvie A, Von Blottnitz H (2013) Occurrence of CCA-treated timber in caterers’ fuelwood stocks in the Cape Town region. S Afr J Sci 109(1/2):1–5. Art. #1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nordstrom DK (2002) Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water. Science (Washington) 296(5576):2143–2145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Norval RAJ (1983) Arguments against intensive dipping in Zimbabwe. Zimb Vet J 14:19–25Google Scholar
  54. Norval RAJ, Perry D, Young AS (1992) The epidemology of theilioriosis in Africa. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Nzihou JF, Bouda M, Hamidou S, Diarra J (2013) Arsenic in drinking water toxicological risk assessment in the north region of Burkina Faso. J Water Resour Prot 5:46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ogola JS, Mundalamo HR, Brandl G (2011) Investigation of the origin and distribution of heavy metals around Ebenezer dam, Limpopo province, South Africa. Water SA 37(2):173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ouédraogo O, Amyot M (2013) Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso). Sci Total Environ 444:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Piracha MA, Ashraf M, Shahzad AM, Siddiqui AR, Nazeer S (2016) Arsenic behaviour in different textured soils amended with phosphate rock and farmyard manure. J Environ Agric 1(1):55–67Google Scholar
  59. Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, O’Neil JG (2007) Biological, chemical and drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 32(15):1167–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, O’Neil JG (2008) Assessment of groundwater quality in shallow wells within the southern districts of Malawi. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 33(8):812–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ramudzuli MR (2014) An evaluation of past cattle dipping practices in the former Venda area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: implications for sustainable development. Unpublished PhD thesis, supervised by AC Horn. University of Pretoria, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramudzuli MR, Horn AC (2014) Arsenic residues in soil at cattle dip tanks in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. S Afr J Sci 110(7/8):1–7. Art #2013-0393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rango T, Bianchini G, Beccaluva L, Tassinari R (2010) Geochemistry and water quality assessment of central Main Ethiopian Rift natural waters with emphasis on source and occurrence of fluoride and arsenic. J Afr Earth Sci 57(5):479–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rango T, Vengosh A, Dwyer G, Bianchini G (2013) Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers. Water Res 47(15):5801–5818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Reimann C, Bjorvatn K, Frengstad B, Melaku Z, Tekle-Haimanot R, Siewers U (2003) Drinking water quality in the Ethiopian section of the East African Rift Valley I – data and health aspects. Sci Total Environ 311(1):65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rezaie-Boroon MH, Gnandi K, Folly K-M (2011) Presence and distribution of toxic trace elements in water and sediments of the southern Togo rivers watershed, West Africa. Fresenius Environ Bull 20(7):1853–1865Google Scholar
  67. Rossiter H, Owusu PA, Awuah E, MacDonald AM, Schäfer AI (2010) Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment. Sci Total Environ 408(11):2378–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Roychowdhury T (2010) Groundwater arsenic contamination in one of the 107 arsenic-affected blocks in West Bengal, India: Status, distribution, health effects and factors responsible for arsenic poisoning. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:414–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ryan PB, Scanlon KA, Mackintosh DL (2001) Analysis of dietary intake of selected metals in the NHEXAS-Maryland investigation. Environ Health Perspect 109(2):121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sami K, Druzynski AL (2003) Predicted spatial distribution of naturally occurring arsenic, selenium and uranium in groundwater in South Africa – reconnaissance survey – WRC Report No. 1236/1/03. Water Research Commission, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  71. Sarkar D, Makris KC, Parra-Noonan MT, Datta R (2007) Effect of soil properties on arsenic fractioning and bioaccessibility in cattle and sheep dipping vats. Environ Int 33:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Serfor-Armah Y, Nyarko BJB, Dampare SB, Adomako D (2006) Levels of arsenic and antimony in water and sediment from Prestea, a gold mining town in Ghana and its environs. Water Air Soil Pollut 175(1):181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh K (2017) Conceptual framework of a cloud-based decision support system for arsenic health risk assessment. Environ Syst Decis 37(4):435–450Google Scholar
  74. Singh SK, Brachfeld SA, Taylor RW (2016) Evaluating hydrogeological and topography controls on groundwater arsenic contamination in the mid-Gangetic plain, Bihar (India): towards developing sustainable arsenic models. In: Fares A (ed) Emerging issues in groundwater resources, advances in water security. Springer, Berlin, pp 263–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smedley PL (1996) Arsenic in rural groundwater in Ghana: special issue; hydrogeochemical studies in sub-Saharan Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 22(4):459–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smedley PL, Edmunds WM, Pelig-Ba KB (1996) Mobility of arsenic in groundwater in the Obuasi gold-mining area of Ghana: some implications for human health. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 113(1):163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smedley PL, Knudsen J, Maiga D (2007) Arsenic in groundwater from mineralised Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso. Appl Geochem 22(5):1074–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith E, Naidu R, Alston AM (1998) Arsenic in the soil environment: a review. Adv Agron 64:150–195Google Scholar
  79. Somé I, Sakira A, Quédraog T, Traoré A, Sondo B, Guissou P (2012) Arsenic levels in tube-wells, water, food, residents’ urine and the prevalence of skin lesions in Yatenga province, Burkina Faso. Interdiscip Toxicol 5(1):38–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. South Africa (1983) Map 7 Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Department of Agriculture, Technical Service, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor H, Appleton JD, Lister R, Smith B, Chitamweba D, Mkumbo O, Machiwa JF, Tesha AL, Beinhoff C (2005) Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania. Sci Total Environ 343(1):111–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. The Republic of Venda (1979) The Republic of Venda. Chris van Rensburg Publications Ltd, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  83. Theiler G (1971) Arnold Theiler 1867–1936: his life and times. University of Pretoria, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  84. Tomlinson FR (1955) Summary of the report of the Commission for the Socio-Economic Development of the Bantu Areas within the Union of South Africa. Government Printer, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  85. Turton J (2004) Methods of tick control in cattle. Department of Agriculture, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  86. UNICEF (2008) Arsenic primer guidance for UNICEF country offices on the investigation and mitigation of arsenic contamination. Water, Environment and Sanitation Section Programme Division. UNICEF, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. USEPA (1999) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk assessment forum, NCEA-F-0644 (revised draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  88. WHO (1981) Arsenic: environmental health criteria. World Health Organization (WHO), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  89. WHO (2000) Arsenic: air quality guidelines, 2nd edn. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  90. WHO (2012) Water sanitation and health – health effects of arsenic in drinking water. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of South AfricaFloridaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesUniversity of LimpopoPolokwaneSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations