Advertisement

Blockchain-Based Application Security Risks: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Mubashar IqbalEmail author
  • Raimundas Matulevičius
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 349)

Abstract

Although the blockchain-based applications are considered to be less vulnerable due to the nature of the distributed ledger, they did not become the silver bullet with respect to securing the information against different security risks. In this paper, we present a literature review on the security risks that can be mitigated by introducing the blockchain technology, and on the security risks that are identified in the blockchain-based applications. In addition, we highlight the application and technology domains where these security risks are observed. The results of this study could be seen as a preliminary checklist of security risks when implementing blockchain-based applications.

Keywords

Blockchain Blockchain-based applications Decentralized applications Security risks 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research has been supported by the Estonian Research Council (grant IUT20-55).

References

  1. 1.
    Alcarria, R., Bordel, B., Robles, T., Martín, D., Manso-Callejo, M.Á.: A blockchain-based authorization system for trustworthy resource monitoring and trading in smart communities. J. Sens. (Switzerland) 18(10), 3561 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ali, S., Wang, G., White, B., Cottrell, R.L.: A blockchain-based decentralized data storage and access framework for PingER. In: Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications and 12th IEEE International Conference on Big Data Science and Engineering, Trustcom/BigDataSE, pp. 1303–1308 (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Androulaki, E., et al.: Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains. In: Proceedings of EuroSys 2018 Thirteenth EuroSys Conference, Article No. 30 (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atzei, N., Bartoletti, M., Cimoli, T.: A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (SoK). In: Maffei, M., Ryan, M. (eds.) POST 2017. LNCS, vol. 10204, pp. 164–186. Springer, Heidelberg (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54455-6_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bartolucci, S., Bernat, P., Joseph, D.: SHARVOT: secret SHARe-based VOTing on the blockchain. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain, pp. 30–34 (2018)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buchmann, N., Rathgeb, C., Baier, H., Busch, C., Margraf, M.: Enhancing breeder document long-term security using blockchain technology. In: Proceedings of International Computer Software and Applications Conference, vol. 2, pp. 744–748 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buterin, V.: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform (2014). https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper
  8. 8.
    Cebe, M., Erdin, E., Akkaya, K., Aksu, H., Uluagac, S.: Block4Forensic: an integrated lightweight blockchain framework for forensics applications of connected vehicles. J. IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(10), 50–57 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, L.: EPBC: efficient public blockchain client for lightweight users. In: Proceedings of SERIAL 2017 1st Workshop on Scalable and Resilient Infrastructures for Distributed Ledgers, Article No. 1 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dagher, G.G., Mohler, J., Milojkovic, M., Marella, P.B.: Ancile: privacy-preserving framework for access control and interoperability of electronic health records using blockchain technology. J. Sustain. Cities Soc. 39(December 2017), 283–297 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Decusatis, C., Lotay, K.: Secure, decentralized energy resource management using the ethereum blockchain. In: Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications and 12th IEEE International Conference on Big Data Science and Engineering, Trustcom/BigDataSE, pp. 1907–1913 (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fabian Vogelsteller, V.B.: Proof of Stake FAQs (2018). https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Proof-of-Stake-FAQs
  13. 13.
    Fan, K., et al.: Blockchain-based secure time protection scheme in IoT. J. IEEE Internet Things PP(c), 1 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Firesmith, D.G.: Engineering Security Requirements. Journal of Object Technology 2(1), 53–68 (2003). Published by ETH Zurich, Chair of Software Engineering \(\copyright \)JOT, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gallo, P., Quoc Nguyen, U.: BlockSee: blockchain for IoT video surveillance in smart cities Suporn Pongnumkul NECTEC Thailand. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), pp. 1–6 (2018)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Han, H., Huang, M., Zhang, Y., Bhatti, U.A.: An architecture of secure health information storage system based on blockchain technology. In: Sun, X., Pan, Z., Bertino, E. (eds.) ICCCS 2018. LNCS, vol. 11064, pp. 578–588. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00009-7_52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hjalmarsson, F.P., Hreioarsson, G.K., Hamdaqa, M., Hjalmtysson, G.: Blockchain-based e-voting system. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), pp. 983–986 (2018). https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8457919/
  18. 18.
    Jouini, M., Rabai, L.B.A., Aissa, A.B.: Classification of security threats in information systems. Procedia Comput. Sci. 32, 489–496 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khan, M.A., Salah, K.: IoT security: review, blockchain solutions, and open challenges. J. Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst. 82, 395–411 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kitchenham, B., Charters, S.: Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering version 2.3. Engineering 45(4ve), 1051 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koteska, B., Mishev, A.: Blockchain implementation quality challenges: a literature review. In: Proceedings of the SQAMIA 2017: 6th Workshop of Software Quality, Analysis, Monitoring, Improvement, and Applications, pp. 11–13, September 2017Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis, A.: Blockchain technology explained (2015). http://www.blockchaintechnologies.com/blockchain-definition
  23. 23.
    Li, H., Lu, R., Misic, J., Mahmoud, M.: Security and privacy of connected vehicular cloud computing. J. IEEE Netw. 32(3), 4–6 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li, X., Jiang, P., Chen, T., Luo, X., Wen, Q.: A survey on the security of blockchain systems. J. Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst. (2017)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin, C., He, D., Huang, X., Choo, K.K.R., Vasilakos, A.V.: BSeIn: a blockchain-based secure mutual authentication with fine-grained access control system for industry 40. J. Netw. Comput. Appl. 116(February), 42–52 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, C., Liu, H., Cao, Z., Chen, Z., Chen, B., Roscoe, B.: ReGuard: finding reentrancy bugs in smart contracts. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 65–68 (2018)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu, M., Shang, J., Liu, P., Shi, Y., Wang, M.: VideoChain: trusted video surveillance based on blockchain for campus. In: Sun, X., Pan, Z., Bertino, E. (eds.) ICCCS 2018. LNCS, vol. 11066, pp. 48–58. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-00015-8_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macrinici, D., Cartofeanu, C., Gao, S.: Smart contract applications within blockchain technology: a systematic mapping study. J. Telemat. Inform. (October), 0–1 (2018). https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0736585318308013
  29. 29.
    Muzammal, M., Qu, Q., Nasrulin, B.: Renovating blockchain with distributed databases: an open source system. J. Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst. 90, 105–117 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mylrea, M., Gourisetti, S.N.G.: Blockchain for smart grid resilience: exchanging distributed energy at speed, scale and security. In: Proceedings of 2017 Resilience Week, RWS 2017, pp. 18–23 (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pradeepkumar, D.S., Singi, K., Kaulgud, V., Podder, S.: Evaluating complexity and digitizability of regulations and contracts for a blockchain application design. In: Proceedings of 2018 ACM/IEEE 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain, no. 1, pp. 25–29 (2018)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Qin, D., Wang, C., Jiang, Y.: RPchain: a blockchain-based academic social networking service for credible reputation building. In: Chen, S., Wang, H., Zhang, L.-J. (eds.) ICBC 2018. LNCS, vol. 10974, pp. 183–198. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94478-4_13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saritekin, R.A., Karabacak, E., Durǧay, Z., Karaarslan, E.: Blockchain based secure communication application proposal: Cryptouch. In: Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security, ISDFS 2018, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 1–4 (2018)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sato, T., Himura, Y.: Smart-contract based system operations for permissioned blockchain. In: Proceedings of 2018 9th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, NTMS 2018, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 1–6 (2018)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sylim, P., Liu, F., Marcelo, A., Fontelo, P.: Blockchain technology for detecting falsified and substandard drugs in distribution: pharmaceutical supply chain intervention. J. Med. Internet Res. 20(9), e10163 (2018)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tikhomirov, S., Voskresenskaya, E., Ivanitskiy, I., Takhaviev, R., Marchenko, E., Alexandrov, Y.: SmartCheck: static analysis of ethereum smart contracts. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain - WETSEB 2018, pp. 9–16 (2018)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tosh, D.K., Shetty, S., Liang, X., Kamhoua, C.A., Kwiat, K.A., Njilla, L.: Security implications of blockchain cloud with analysis of block withholding attack. In: Proceedings of 17th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, CCGRID 2017, pp. 458–467 (2017)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yao, H., Wang, C.: A novel blockchain-based authenticated key exchange protocol and its applications. In: Proceedings of IEEE 3rd International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace, DSC 2018, pp. 609–614 (2018)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yin, W.E.I., Wen, Q., Li, W., Zhang, H.U.A., Jin, Z.: An anti-quantum transaction authentication approach in blockchain. J. IEEE Access 6, 5393–5401 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yu, B., et al.: Platform-independent secure blockchain-based voting system. In: Chen, L., Manulis, M., Schneider, S. (eds.) ISC 2018. LNCS, vol. 11060, pp. 369–386. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99136-8_20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang, W.: A privacy-preserving voting protocol on blockchain. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing, pp. 401–408 (2018)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zheng, Z., Xie, S., Dai, H.N., Chen, X., Wang, H.: Blockchain challenges and opportunities : a survey. Int. J. Web Grid Serv. 14(4), 1–24 (2016). http://inpluslab.sysu.edu.cn/files/blockchain/blockchain.pdfGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zhu, L., Wu, Y., Gai, K., Choo, K.K.R.: Controllable and trustworthy blockchain-based cloud data management. J. Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst. 91, 527–535 (2018). https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167739X18311993CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

Personalised recommendations