Microscopic Potentials and Radiation

  • Kurt E. Oughstun
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 224)


The microscopic Maxwell equations consist of a set of coupled first-order partial differential equations relating the electric and magnetic field vectors that comprise the electromagnetic field to each other as well as to their charge and current sources. Their solution is often facilitated by the introduction of auxiliary fields known as potentials. These potentials have their origin in the two homogeneous equations ∇⋅b = 0 and ∇×e = −∥1∕cb∂t which indicate that not all of the components of the field vectors e and b are entirely independent.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt E. Oughstun
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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