Impact of Mediterranean Diet on Longevity
- 314 Downloads
Nutrition is considered one of the key behaviours that influence healthy ageing. Evidence on the impact of traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) on health and longevity has accumulated over the years. With a consistency unusual in biomedical research, adherence to MD has been associated with better survival and lower incidence and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. These associations were evident among diverse populations, at different points in time and by different investigators, using both observational and experimental study designs, thus strengthening the likelihood of a possible causal association. Higher adherence to MD has also been associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes, dementia and hip fractures, all of which have considerable burden among older adults. Beyond primary prevention, MD seems to possess a therapeutic and favourable prognostic role among patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and cancer. Last but not least, MD is an excellent example of a sustainable diet, in which nutrition, local food production, food safety, culture, biodiversity and sustainability are strongly interconnected.
KeywordsMediterranean diet Longevity Traditional foods Healthy ageing Dietary patterns
- 1.World report on ageing and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015.Google Scholar
- 2.Global strategy and action plan on ageing and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA3.0 IGO.Google Scholar
- 3.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research: Diet, Nutrition and Physical Activity: a Global Perspective. Continuous Update Project Expert Report; 2018. dietandcancerreport.org.
- 9.Jankovic N, Geelen A, Streppel MT, de Groot LC, Orfanos P, van den Hooven EH, et al. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(10):978–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Jankovic N, Geelen A, Winkels RM, Mwungura B, Fedirko V, Jenab M, et al. Consortium on health and ageing: network of cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES). Adherence to the WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and risk of cancer in elderly from Europe and the United States: a meta-analysis within the CHANCES project. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017;26(1):136–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Diet, physical activity and cardiovascular disease prevention in Europe. European Heart Network; 2011.Google Scholar
- 35.Frölich S, Lehmann N, Weyers S, Wahl S, Dragano N, Budde T, Kälsch H, et al.; Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigators. Association of dietary patterns with five-year degree and progression of coronary artery calcification in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(11):999–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Ratjen I, Schafmayer C, di Giuseppe R, Waniek S, Plachta-Danielzik S, Koch M, Nöthlings U, Hampe J, Schlesinger S, Lieb W. Postdiagnostic Mediterranean and healthy Nordic dietary patterns are inversely associated with all-cause mortality in long-term colorectal cancer survivors. J Nutr. 2017;147(4):636–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar