• Windell NortjeEmail author
  • Noëlle Quénivet


After summarising the key findings of the study, this chapter brings the conversation back to two points. Firstly, it reiterates the legal and ethical importance that alleged perpetrators of international crimes be able to invoke defences and have a fair chance for such a defence to be successful. Secondly, it stresses that the dual status of children as victims and as perpetrators must be better understood when applying defences, and especially duress, under international criminal law. More fundamentally, this chapter argues that an approach that takes better account of the complex situation in which some alleged perpetrators are placed must be applied to any adult in a similar position. The findings of the study go beyond the narrow set of child soldiers and have wider significance.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of the Western CapeCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Bristol Law SchoolUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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