Advertisement

Limits of, and Exclusions from, the Defence of Duress

  • Windell NortjeEmail author
  • Noëlle Quénivet
Chapter
  • 106 Downloads

Abstract

In addition to the requirements that must be fulfilled to successfully raise the defence of duress under Article 31(1)(d) of the ICC Statute, a number of limitations and exclusions are integrated into the defence of duress. This chapter explores the limitations placed on the defence of duress in the light of child soldiers. It looks specifically at the cases of a special duty to assume danger, and the fact that to be able to avail him/herself of the defence of duress, a child soldier must demonstrate that he/she is free of fault, that is, that he/she has not placed him/herself in a duress situation. Also, under customary international law, it is required that the situation leading to duress must not have been voluntarily brought about by the person coerced. The application of the limitations and exclusions as applicable to child soldiers in this chapter presents a novelty in legal scholarship.

References

  1. Abbott, A.B., 2000, ‘Child Soldiers—The Use of Children as Instruments of War’, 23 Suffolk Transnt’l L.Rev. 499–537.Google Scholar
  2. Achton Thomas, M., 2013, ‘Malice Supplies the Age? Assessing the Culpability of Adolescent Soldiers’, 44 Cal.W.Int’l L.J. 1–38.Google Scholar
  3. Almohammad, A., 2018, ISIS Child Soldiers in Syria: The Structural and Predatory Recruitment, Enlistment, Pre-training Indoctrination, Training, and Deployment, International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, Research Paper, February 2018.Google Scholar
  4. Ambos, K., 2013, Treatise on International Criminal Law: Volume I: Foundations and General Part (OUP).Google Scholar
  5. Amone-P’Olak, K. and E. Ovuga, 2017, ‘The Influence of Types of War Experiences on Conduct Problems in War-Affected Youth in Northern Ugandan: Findings from the WAYS Study’, 251 Psychiatry Res. 14–19.Google Scholar
  6. Amone-P’Olak, K., et al., 2015, ‘War Experiences and Psychotic Symptoms among Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda: The Mediating Role of Post-War Hardships—The WAYS Study’, 45 S.Afr.J.Psychol. 155–167.Google Scholar
  7. Arenson, K.J., 2014, ‘The Paradox of Disallowing Duress as a Defence to Murder’, 78 J.C.L. 65–79.Google Scholar
  8. Baines, E., 2009, ‘Complex Political Perpetrators: Reflections on Dominic Ongwen’, 47 J.Mod.Afr.Stud. 163–191.Google Scholar
  9. Bond, J. and M. Fougere, 2014, ‘Omnipresent Threats: A Comment on the Defence of Duress in International Criminal Law’, 14 Int.C.L.R. 471–512.Google Scholar
  10. Brett, R. and I. Specht, 2004, Young Soldiers: Why they Choose to Fight (Lynne Rienner).Google Scholar
  11. Briggs, J., 2005, Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War (Basic Books).Google Scholar
  12. Cassese, A., et al., 2013, Cassese’s International Criminal Law (3rd edn., OUP).Google Scholar
  13. Cohn, I. and G.S. Goodwin-Gill, 1994, Child Soldiers: The Role of Children in Armed Conflicts (OUP).Google Scholar
  14. Crane, D., 2008, ‘Prosecuting Children in Times of Conflict: The West African Experience’, 15 H.R.B. 11–17.Google Scholar
  15. Cryer, C., et al., 2014, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (3rd edn., CUP).Google Scholar
  16. Danner, A.M. and J.S. Martinez, 2005, ‘Guilty Associations: Joint Criminal Enterprise, Command Responsibility, and the Development of International Criminal Law’, 93 C.L.R. 75–169.Google Scholar
  17. Davison, A., 2004, ‘Child Soldiers: No Longer a Minor Incident’, 12 Willamette J.Int’l L. & Disp.Resol. 124–157.Google Scholar
  18. Derluyn, I., et al., 2015, ‘Victims and/or Perpetrators? Towards an Interdisciplinary Dialogue on Child Soldiers’, 15 BMC Int. Health Hum. Rights 28–40.Google Scholar
  19. Dinstein, Y., 2000, ‘Defences’, in McDonald, G.K. and O. Swaak-Goldman (eds) Substantive and Procedural Aspects of International Criminal Law: The Experience of International and National Courts, Volume I: Commentary (Kluwer) 371–388.Google Scholar
  20. Dore, C.L., 2007–2008, ‘What to Do with Omar Khadr? Putting a Child Soldier on Trial: Questions of International Law, Juvenile Justice, and Moral Culpability’, 41 J.Marshall L.Rev.J. 1281–1320.Google Scholar
  21. Drumbl, M., 2012, Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy (OUP).Google Scholar
  22. Drumbl, M., 2016, ‘Victims who Victimise’, 4 Lond.Rev.Int. Law 217–246.Google Scholar
  23. Drumbl, M.A., 2015, ‘The Ongwen Trial at the ICC: Tough Questions on Child Soldiers’, Open Democracy, 14 April 2015, available at https://www.opendemocracy.net/openglobalrights/mark-drumbl/ongwen-trial-at-icc-tough-questions-on-child-soldiers (last visited 2 September 2018).
  24. East Timor Tribunal Leki, 2001, Prosecutor v. Leki, East Timorese Public Administration, Dili District Court, Special Panel for Serious Crimes, Case No. 5/2000, 11 June 2001, available at http://www.worldlii.org/tp/cases/TPSPSC/2001/7.pdf (last visited 2 September 2018) at 8.
  25. ECCC Duch, 2010, Prosecutor v. Guek Eav alias Duch, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, Judgment, Case No. 001/18-07-2007/ECCC/TC, 26 July 2010.Google Scholar
  26. Elahi, M., 1988, ‘The Rights of the Child under Islamic Law: Prohibition of the Child Soldier’, 19 Colum.Hum.Rts.L.Rev. 259–279.Google Scholar
  27. Eser, E., 2016, ‘Article 31: Grounds for Excluding Criminal Responsibility’, in Triffterer, O. and K. Ambos (eds), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary (3rd edn., Beck) 1125–1160.Google Scholar
  28. Faulkner, F., 2001, ‘Kindergarten Killers: Morality, Murder and the Child Soldier Problem’, 22 T.W.Q. 491–504.Google Scholar
  29. Fonseka, F., 2001, ‘The Protection of Child Soldiers in International Law’, 2 A.P.J.H.R.L. 69–89.Google Scholar
  30. France Papon, 1996, Papon Case, Cour d’appel de Bordeaux, Chambre d’accusation, Judgment No. 806, 18 September 1996, available at http://www.haguejusticeportal.net/Docs/NLP/France/Papon_acte_accusation_18_09_96.pdf (last visited 2 August 2018).
  31. Germany Gestapo Informer, 1949, Gestapo Informer Case, Oberlandsgericht Freiburg i. Br., Ss 64/48, Hoechstrichterliche Entscheidungen, Sammlung von Entscheidungen der Oberlandesgerichte und der Oberststen Gerichte in Strafsachen, Volume 2, 200–203, 17 February 1949.Google Scholar
  32. Gilbert, J., 2006, ‘Justice Not Revenge: The International Criminal Court and the “Grounds to Exclude Criminal Responsibility”—Defences or Negation of Criminality?’, 10 I.J.H.R. 143–160.Google Scholar
  33. Grant, N., 2016, Duress as a Defence for Former Child Soldiers? Dominic Ongwen and the International Criminal Court, International Crimes Database Brief 21, December 2016.Google Scholar
  34. Greenawalt, A.K.A., 2011, ‘The Pluralism of International Criminal Law’, 86 Ind.L.J. 1063–1130.Google Scholar
  35. Hackenberg, M.L., 2000, ‘Can the Optional Protocol for the Convention on the Rights of the Child Protect the Ugandan Child Soldier?’, 10 Ind.Int’l & Comp.L.Rev. 417–455.Google Scholar
  36. Happold, M., 2002, ‘Excluding Children from Refugee Status: Child Soldiers and Article 1F of the Refugee Convention’, 24 Am.U.Int’l.L.Rev. 1131–1176.Google Scholar
  37. Happold, M., 2005, Child Soldiers in International Law (MUP).Google Scholar
  38. Heim, S.J., 2013, ‘The Applicability of the Duress Defense to the Killing of Innocent Persons by Civilians’, 46 Cornell Int’l L.J. 165–190.Google Scholar
  39. Huyghebaert, P., 2009, ‘Les enfants dans les conflits armés: une analyse à l’aune des notions de vulnérabilité, de pauvreté et de “capabilités”’, 2 Mondes en développement 59–72.Google Scholar
  40. ICC Katanga, 2014, Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Case of the Prosecutor v. Katanga, International Criminal Court, Judgment Pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07, 7 March 2014.Google Scholar
  41. ICC Katanga and Chui, 2008, Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Case of the Prosecutor v. Katanga and Ngudjolo Chui, International Criminal Court, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07, 30 September 2008.Google Scholar
  42. ICC Lubanga, 2012, Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Case of the Prosecutor v. Lubanga Dyilo, Judgment Pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06, 14 March 2012.Google Scholar
  43. ICC Ongwen, 2016a, Situation in Uganda in the Case of the Prosecutor v. Ongwen, International Criminal Court, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges against Dominic Ongwen (Public Redacted), Case No. ICC-02/04-01/15, 23 March 2016.Google Scholar
  44. ICC Ongwen, 2016b, Situation in Uganda in the Case of the Prosecutor v. Ongwen, International Criminal Court, Pre-trial Brief on Behalf of Victims Represented by the Common Legal Representative, Case No. ICC-02/0-01/15, 6 September 2016.Google Scholar
  45. ICTY Erdemović, 1997a, Prosecutor v. Erdemović, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Judgment, Case No. IT-96-22-A, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Cassese, 7 October 1997.Google Scholar
  46. ICTY Erdemović, 1997b, Prosecutor v. Erdemović, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Judgment, Case No. IT-96-22-A, Joint Separate Opinion of Judges McDonald and Vohrah, 7 October 1997.Google Scholar
  47. ICTY Kvocka et al., 2001, Prosecutor v. Kvocka et al., International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Judgment, Case No. IT-98-30/1-T, 2 November 2001.Google Scholar
  48. Jamison, M.A., 2005, ‘Detention of Juvenile Enemy Combatants at Guantanamo Bay: The Special Concerns of Children’, 9 U.C.Davis J.Int’l L. & Pol’y 127–170.Google Scholar
  49. Joyce, M., 2015, ‘Duress: From Nuremberg to the International Criminal Court, Finding the Balance between Justification and Excuse’, 28 L.J.I.L. 623–642.Google Scholar
  50. Klasen, F., et al., 2010, ‘Multiple Trauma and Mental Health in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers’, 23 J. Trauma. Stress 573–581.Google Scholar
  51. Knoops, G.A., 2003, An Introduction to the Law of International Criminal Tribunals: A Comparative Study (Transnational Publishers).Google Scholar
  52. Lafayette, E., 2012–2013, ‘The Prosecution of Child Soldiers: Balancing Accountability with Justice’, 63 Syracuse L.Rev. 297–325.Google Scholar
  53. Linton, S. and C. Reiger, 2001, ‘The Evolving Jurisprudence and Practice of East Timor’s Special Panels for Serious Crimes on Admissions of Guilt, Duress and Superior Orders’, 4 Y.I.H.L. 167–212.Google Scholar
  54. Lippman, M., 1992, ‘The Other Nuremberg: American Prosecutions of Nazi War Criminals in Occupied Germany’, 3 Ind.Int’l & Comp.L.Rev. 1–100.Google Scholar
  55. Maclure, R. and M. Denov, 2006, ‘“I Didn’t Want to Die So I Joined Them”: Structuration and the Process of Becoming Boy Soldiers in Sierra Leone’, 18 Terror. Political Violence 119–135.Google Scholar
  56. Maxted, J., 2003, ‘Children and Armed Conflict in Africa’, 9 Social Issues 51–72.Google Scholar
  57. Murphy, W.P., 2003, ‘Military Patrimonialism and Child Soldier Clientalism in the Liberian and Sierra Leonean Civil Wars’, 46 Afr.Stud.Rev. 61–87.Google Scholar
  58. Nagle, L.E., 2011, ‘Child Soldiers and the Duty of Nations to Protect Children from Participation in Armed Conflict’, 19 Cardozo J.Int’l & Comp.L. 1–58.Google Scholar
  59. Newman, B.M., et al., 2007, ‘Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems’, 42 Adolescence 241–263.Google Scholar
  60. Njeru, S., 2010, ‘Dealing with the Past: The Youth and Post-War Recovery in Southern Sudan’, 10 Afr.J.Confl.Resolut. 29–50.Google Scholar
  61. Oellers-Frahm, K. and B. Specht, 1998, ‘Die Erdemovic-Rechtsprechung des Jugoslawientribunals: Probleme bei der Entwicklung eines internationalen Strafrechts, dargestellt am Beispiel des Notstands’, 58 Z.a.ö.R.V. 389–414.Google Scholar
  62. Okebukola, E.O., 2014, ‘Training Children for Armed Conflict—Where Does the Law Stand?’, 14 Int.C.L.R. 588–618.Google Scholar
  63. Olusanya, O., 2010, ‘Excuse and Mitigation under International Criminal Law: Redrawing Conceptual Boundaries’, 13 New Crim.L.Rev. 23–89.Google Scholar
  64. Park, A.S.J., 2014, ‘Constituting Omar Khadr: Cultural Racism, Childhood, and Citizenship’, 8 Int. Political Sociol. 43–62.Google Scholar
  65. Pham, P.N., et al., 2008, ‘The Lord’s Resistance Army and Forced Conscription in Northern Uganda’, 30 Hum.Rts.Q. 404–441.Google Scholar
  66. Posada, R. and C. Wainryb, 2008, ‘Moral Development in a Violent Society: Colombian Children’s Judgments in the Context of Survival and Revenge’, 79 Child Development 882–898.Google Scholar
  67. Quénivet, N., 2013, ‘The Liberal Discourse and the “New Wars” of/on Children’, 38 Brook.J.Int’l L. 1053–1107.Google Scholar
  68. Redress, 2006, Victims, Perpetrators or Heroes? Child Soldiers before the International Criminal Court, September 2006.Google Scholar
  69. Risacher, B.J., 2013–2014, ‘No Excuse: The Failure of the ICC’s Article 31 “Duress” Definition’, 89 Notre Dame L.Rev. 1403–1426.Google Scholar
  70. Robinson, D., 2013, ‘A Cosmopolitan Liberal Account of International Criminal Law’, 26 L.J.I.L. 127–153.Google Scholar
  71. Scaliotti, M., 2001, ‘Defences before the International Criminal Court: Substantive Grounds for Excluding Criminal Responsibility—Part 1’, 1 Int.C.L.R. 111–172.Google Scholar
  72. Schmidt, A., 2007, ‘Volunteer Child Soldiers as Reality: A Development Issue for Africa’, 2 N.S.E.R. 49–76.Google Scholar
  73. SCSL Fofana and Kondewa, 2007, Prosecutor v. Fofana and Kondewa, Special Court for Sierra Leone, Judgment, Case No. SCSL-04-14-T, 2 August 2007.Google Scholar
  74. SCSL Norman, 2004, Prosecutor v. Hinga Norman, Special Court for Sierra Leone, Decision on Preliminary Motion Based on Lack of Jurisdiction (Child Recruitment), Case No. SCSL-04-14-AR72(E), Dissenting Opinion of Justice Robertson, 31 May 2004.Google Scholar
  75. SCSL Sesay, 2009, Prosecutor v. Hassan Sesay et al., Special Court for Sierra Leone, Judgment, Case No. SCSL-04-15-T, 2 March 2009.Google Scholar
  76. Singer, P., 2005, Children at War (Pantheon Books).Google Scholar
  77. Singh, D., 2007, ‘When a Child is not a Child: The Scourge of Child Soldiering in Africa’, 7 A.H.R.L.J. 206–224.Google Scholar
  78. Smith, S.W., 2011, ‘Youth in Africa: Rebels without a Cause but not without Effect’, 31 SAIS Review 97–110.Google Scholar
  79. Souris, R.N., 2017, ‘Child Soldiering on Trial: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Responsibility in the Lord’s Resistance Army’, 13 Int.J.L.C. 316–335.Google Scholar
  80. Stahn, C., 2019, A Critical Introduction to International Criminal Law (CUP).Google Scholar
  81. Swart, M. and S. Hassen, 2016, ‘A Comparison Between the Position of Child Marriage ‘Victims’ and Child Soldiers: Towards a Nuanced Approach’, 16 A.H.R.L.J. 458–475.Google Scholar
  82. Tercier Holst-Roness, F., 2006, Violence against Girls in Africa during Armed Conflicts and Crises, Second International Policy Conference on the African Child: Violence against Girls in Africa, International Committee of the Red Cross, Addis Ababa, 11–12 May 2006.Google Scholar
  83. Tomuschat, C., 2006, ‘The Legacy of Nuremberg’, 4 J.I.C.J. 830–844.Google Scholar
  84. Trenholm, J., et al., 2012, ‘Constructing Soldiers from Boys in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo’, 16 Men and Masculinities 203–227.Google Scholar
  85. UK M’Growther, 1746, Commission for the Trial of the Rebels, (1746) Fost 13, 31 July 1746.Google Scholar
  86. UNICEF, 2002, Adult Wars, Child Soldiers: Voices of Children Involved in Armed Conflict in the East Asia and Pacific Region, 2002, https://www.unicef.org/sowc06/pdfs/pub_adultwars_en.pdf (last visited 2 March 2019).
  87. UNSG, 1996, United Nations Secretary General, Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children. Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, U.N. Doc. A/51/306, 26 August 1996.Google Scholar
  88. UNSR, 2008, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Written Submissions, Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Case of The Prosecutor v. Lubanga Dyilo, Submitted in Application of Rule 103 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/06-1229-AnxA 18-03-2008 2/10 CB T, 17 March 2008.Google Scholar
  89. UNSR, 2011, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Children and Justice during and in the Aftermath of Armed Conflict, Working Paper No. 3, September 2011.Google Scholar
  90. US Einsatzgruppen, 1948, United States v. Ohlendorf (Einsatzgruppen), Military Tribunal, Opinion and Judgment, Case No. 9, 8–9 April 1948, available at http://www.worldcourts.com/imt/eng/decisions/1948.04.09_United_States_v_Ohlendorf.pdf (last visited 18 February 2019).
  91. US Milch, 1947, United States v. Milch, Military Tribunal, Judgment, Case No. 39, 20 December 1946—17 April 1947, available at http://www.worldcourts.com/imt/eng/decisions/1947.04.17_United_States_v_Milch.pdf (last visited 2 September 2018).
  92. Waschefort, G., 2015, International Law and Child Soldiers (Hart).Google Scholar
  93. Weigend, T., 2012, ‘Kill or Be Killed. Another Look at Erdemović’, 10 J.I.C.J. 1219–1237.Google Scholar
  94. Werle, G. and F. Jessberger, 2014, Principles of International Criminal Law (3rd edn., OUP).Google Scholar
  95. Wessells, M., 2006, Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (HUP).Google Scholar
  96. West, H.G., 2000, ‘Girls with Guns: Narrating the Experience of War of FRELIMO’s “Female Detachment”’, 73 Anthropol.Q. 180–194.Google Scholar
  97. Wiener, N., 2014, ‘Excuses, Justifications, and Duress at the International Criminal Tribunals’, 26 Pace Int’l L.Rev. 88–131.Google Scholar
  98. Wright, Q., 1949, ‘International Law and Guilt by Association’, 43 A.J.I.L. 746–755.Google Scholar
  99. Yee, S., 1997, ‘The Erdemovic Sentencing Judgement: A Questionable Milestone for the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, 26 Ga.J.Int’l & Comp.L. 263–309.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of the Western CapeCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Bristol Law SchoolUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

Personalised recommendations