Limits of, and Exclusions from, the Defence of Duress

  • Windell NortjeEmail author
  • Noëlle Quénivet


In addition to the requirements that must be fulfilled to successfully raise the defence of duress under Article 31(1)(d) of the ICC Statute, a number of limitations and exclusions are integrated into the defence of duress. This chapter explores the limitations placed on the defence of duress in the light of child soldiers. It looks specifically at the cases of a special duty to assume danger, and the fact that to be able to avail him/herself of the defence of duress, a child soldier must demonstrate that he/she is free of fault, that is, that he/she has not placed him/herself in a duress situation. Also, under customary international law, it is required that the situation leading to duress must not have been voluntarily brought about by the person coerced. The application of the limitations and exclusions as applicable to child soldiers in this chapter presents a novelty in legal scholarship.


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of the Western CapeCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Bristol Law SchoolUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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