The Application of the Requirements of Duress to Child Soldiers

  • Windell NortjeEmail author
  • Noëlle Quénivet


This chapter methodically applies the requirements of the defence of duress to the particular situation of children aged 15–18 years who have committed crimes under international law. This is done by applying all the requirements of the defence of duress in Article 31(1)(d) of the International Criminal Court (ICC) Statute to the specific situation of child soldiers. Due to a lack of ICC jurisprudence on the defence of duress, recourse must be had to previous national and international jurisprudence to elucidate the conditions spelled out in the provisions of the ICC Statute. This chapter further seeks to address the differences between adult and child perpetrators in light of the application of the defence of duress to child soldiers. Importantly, this chapter fills a critical gap in the vast scholarship on child soldiers as it is one of the first scholarly writings to offer a comprehensive application of the requirements of duress to child soldiers.


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© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of the Western CapeCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Bristol Law SchoolUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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