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A CFD Study on Photovoltaic Performance Investigation of a Solar Racing Car

  • Talha Batuhan KorkutEmail author
  • Aytaç Goren
  • Mehmet Akif Ezan
Conference paper
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

The increasing trend of the energy consumption of humanity has brought forward the efficient use of current energy resources and seeking for the adaptation of renewable energy resources. Integration of renewable energy into transportation, on the other hand, has crucial importance as it reduces the emissions in the urban regions and increases the life quality by reducing the noise in solar-powered electric vehicles. Solar-powered vehicles, automobiles or planes, with photovoltaic panels (PVPs) are widely in use for decades. However, there are several aspects, such as electrical conversion and storage efficiencies, that should be improved. It is known that increasing the temperature of the PVPs adversely affects both the panel lifetime and electrical conversion efficiency. In this study, a 3D CFD model of a solar-powered racing car is developed in ANSYS-FLUENT to investigate the power outputs of the PVPs that are placed on different positions of the vehicle under various velocities, i.e., 30–120 km/h, and solar irradiations, i.e., 300–900 W/m2.

Keywords

Solar car Photovoltaic efficiency PV modeling CFD Aerodynamics 

Nomenclature

Parameters for Cell Current Calculation

Iph

Light-generated current (A)

IS

Cell saturation of dark current (A)

TC

Cell temperature (K)

q

Electron charge (1.6 × 10−19 (V))

IS1

First diode saturation current (A)

N1

Quality factor of D1

Vt

Thermal voltage (V)

Rp

Internal parallel resistance (Ω)

V

Voltage (V)

k

Boltzmann cons. (1.38 × 10−23 (J/K))

TSTC

Cell temperature (K) @STC (@25 °C)

A

Ideal factor

I

Current (A)

IS2

Second diode saturation current (A)

N2

The quality factor of D2

Rs

Internal series resistance (Ω)

Parameters are Given by Manufacturers

VOC

Open-circuit voltage @25 °C (V)

Vm

Voltage @MPP@25 °C (V)

Pm

Maximum power @25 °C (W)

ISC

Short-circuit current @25 °C (A)

Im

Current @MPP@25 °C (A)

tPV

The thickness of the laminated PV module

The Energy Need for a Solar-Powered Vehicle

WT

Total resistive forces (N)

WR1

Rolling resistance force (1) (N)

WR2

Rolling resistance force (2) (N)

WB

Acceleration resistance force (N)

WST

Gradient resistance force (N)

m

The total mass of the vehicle (kg)

η

Motor, controller and drive train efficiency

ηb

Watt-battery eff.

x

Distance (m)

W

Weight of the vehicle (N)

Crr1

Rolling resistance const. (1)

Crr2

Rolling resistance const. (2) (Ns/m)

N

Number of wheels

h

Total height vehicle climbs (m)

Na

Number of times the vehicle will accelerate in a race day

g

Accelaration due to gravity constant (m/s2)

Data Reduction

FD

Drag force (N)

PD

Power consumption (Wh)

FL

Lift force (N)

ρ

Density of air (kg/m3)

Abbreviation and Acronyms

PV

Photovoltaic

SC

Solar car

CAD

Computer-aided Design

CV

Conventional vehicle

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank S10 Solaris Solar Car Team members for their help in the implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis and performing tests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Talha Batuhan Korkut
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aytaç Goren
    • 1
  • Mehmet Akif Ezan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDokuz Eylul UniversityİzmirTurkey

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