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Catalytic Treatment of Opium Alkaloid Wastewater via Hydrothermal Gasification

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Abstract

The wastewater from an opium processing plant should meet the standards as specified in the ‘Water Pollution Control Regulation (WPCR), 2004’ before being discharged safely into the receiving medium. Treatment of opium alkaloid wastewater is not sufficient using the existing combined methods of aerobic/anaerobic and chemical treatment. Hydrothermal gasification (HTG) is proposed as an alternative treatment in this study. The other aim of this study is to show the ability to manufacture CH4 and H2 as renewable energy sources and to determine to what extent the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) is. Studies were carried out in batch autoclave reactor systems without catalyst, with original red mud (RM), activated RM, and nickel-impregnated (10, 20, and 30%) forms. Reduction with NaBH4 was done to the nickel-impregnated forms of RM to increase the catalytic activity. Yields of CH4 and H2 increased from 16.8 to 28.6 mol CH4/kg C in wastewater and from 20.3 to 33.3 mol H2/kg C in wastewater with 20% impregnated nickel and reduced red mud as the highest at 500 °C. The COD of the wastewater was lowered by 81–85% approximately while the TOC content decreased by 85–90%.

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Wastewater
  • Supercritical
  • Gasification
  • Hydrogen

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-20637-6_20
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Abbreviations

C i :

Concentration of component ‘i’ in the gas product (vol%)

HTG:

Hydrothermal gasification

n i :

Number of carbon atoms of component ‘i’ in the gas product

m :

Weight of biomass in feed (g)

M :

Molar mass of carbon (g mol−1)

P :

Pressure (Pa)

R :

Universal gas constant 8.3143 J mol−1 K−1

T :

Temperature (K)

V gas :

Volume of gas product under ambient conditions (L)

TOC aq :

Total organic carbon content of the aqueous product (g L−1)

TOC ww :

Total organic carbon content of raw alkaloid wastewater (g L−1)

COD ww :

Chemical oxygen demand raw alkaloid wastewater (g L−1)

TOC aq :

Chemical oxygen demand of the aqueous product (g L−1)

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Acknowledgements

We gratefully appreciate the financial support of Ege University-Aliye Üster Vakfı and Ege University-EBILTEM (Project No’s: 15 MÜH 055 and 16 MÜH 133). We also give thanks to Mr. G. Serin for his support in the pre-treatment step of the biomasses and for the help during the experimental studies and analysis.

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Correspondence to Nihal Ü. Cengiz .

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Cengiz, N.Ü., Sağlam, M., Yüksel, M., Ballice, L. (2020). Catalytic Treatment of Opium Alkaloid Wastewater via Hydrothermal Gasification. In: Dincer, I., Colpan, C., Ezan, M. (eds) Environmentally-Benign Energy Solutions. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20637-6_20

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20637-6_20

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