Advertisement

The Impact of Autonomous Vehicles’ Active Feedback on Trust

  • Ana MackayEmail author
  • Inês Fortes
  • Catarina Santos
  • Dário Machado
  • Patrícia Barbosa
  • Vera Vilas Boas
  • João Pedro Ferreira
  • Nélson Costa
  • Carlos Silva
  • Emanuel Sousa
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 969)

Abstract

The successful introduction of self-driving technology may depend on the ability of the vehicles’ human-machine interface to convey trust to the vehicle occupants. Using a driving simulator, in this experiment we aimed to evaluate drivers’ trust on an autonomous system, depending on the feedback the vehicle provided by an assistive cluster’s interface. Forty participants were divided into three groups regarding levels of feedback: (a) cluster without feedback (N = 13); (b) cluster with feedback regarding the surrounding vehicles (N = 14); (c) cluster with feedback regarding the surrounding vehicles and the vehicle’s own decisions (N = 13). For all groups, a visual search task was introduced as an indirect indicator of trust in the autonomous system. Results showed an inverse relation between available feedback and correct answers. The system was evaluated as trustable and safe by all groups. Overall, the results may contribute to design requirements for future vehicle HMIs, as they indicate that more information does not necessarily convey more trust.

Keywords

Autonomous driving Trust Cluster’s feedback Visual search task 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia the scope of the Project: UID/CEC/00319/2019 and by: European Structural and Investment Funds in the FEDER component, through the Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Programme (COMPETE 2020) [Project no. 039334; Funding Reference: POCI-01-0247-FEDER-039334].

References

  1. Beller, J., Heesen, M., Vollrath, M.: Improving the driver-automation interaction: an approach using automation uncertainty. Hum. Factors 55(6), 1130–1141 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720813482327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Choi, J.K., Ji, Y.G.: Investigating the importance of trust on adopting an autonomous vehicle. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. 31(10), 692–702 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2015.1070549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Engström, J., Johansson, E., Östlund, J.: Effects of visual and cognitive load in real and simulated motorway driving. Transp. Res. Part F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 8(2 SPEC. ISS.), 97–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2005.04.012
  4. Haeuslschmid, R., von Buelow, M., Pfleging, B., Butz, A.: Supporting trust in autonomous driving. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces - IUI 2017, pp. 319–329 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3025171.3025198
  5. Helldin, T., Falkman, G., Riveiro, M., Davidsson, S.: Presenting system uncertainty in automotive UIs for supporting trust calibration in autonomous driving. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces Interactive Vehicles, vol. 5, pp. 210–217 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.1976.tb01762.x
  6. Hergeth, S., Lorenz, L., Vilimek, R., Krems, J.F.: Keep your scanners peeled: gaze behavior as a measure of automation trust during highly automated driving. Hum. Factors J. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. 58(3), 509–519 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720815625744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hoffman, R.R., Johnson, M., Bradshaw, J.M., Underbrink, A.: Trust in automation. IEEE Intell. Syst. 28(1), 84–88 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2013.24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Koo, J., Kwac, J., Ju, W., Steinert, M., Leifer, L., Nass, C.: Why did my car just do that? Explaining semi-autonomous driving actions to improve driver understanding, trust, and performance. Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf. (IJIDeM) 9(4), 269–275 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12008-014-0227-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lee, J., Kim, N., Imm, C., Kim, B., Yi, K., Kim, J.: A question of trust: an ethnographic study of automated cars on real roads. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications – Automotive UI 2016, pp. 201–208 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3003715.3005405
  10. Llaneras, R.E., Green, C.A.: Human factors issues associated with limited ability autonomous driving systems : drivers’ allocation of visual attention to the forward roadway, pp. 92–98 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. Morris, D.M., Erno, J.M., Pilcher, J.J.: Electrodermal response and automation trust during simulated self-driving car use. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 1759–1762 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1541931213601921
  12. Reimer, B., Mehler, B.: The impact of cognitive workload on physiological arousal in young adult drivers: a field study and simulation validation. Ergonomics 54(10), 932–942 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2011.604431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ruijten, P.A.M., Terken, J.M.B., Chandramouli, S.N.: Enhancing Trust in Autonomous Vehicles through Intelligent User Interfaces That Mimic Human Behavior (2018).  https://doi.org/10.3390/mti2040062
  14. Schmidt, E., Decke, R., Rasshofer, R., Bullinger, A.C.: Psychophysiological responses to short-term cooling during a simulated monotonous driving task. Appl. Ergon. 62, 9–18 (2017). http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2017.01.017
  15. Young, M.S., Brookhuis, K.A., Wickens, C.D., Hancock, P.A.: State of science: mental workload in ergonomics. Ergonomics (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2014.956151

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Mackay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Inês Fortes
    • 1
  • Catarina Santos
    • 1
  • Dário Machado
    • 2
  • Patrícia Barbosa
    • 1
  • Vera Vilas Boas
    • 3
  • João Pedro Ferreira
    • 3
  • Nélson Costa
    • 1
    • 4
  • Carlos Silva
    • 2
  • Emanuel Sousa
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.ALGORITMI Research Centre, School of EngineeringUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal
  2. 2.Center for Computer GraphicsGuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.Bosch Car MultimediaBragaPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Production and Systems, School of EngineeringUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations