One fundamental difficulty in gaining an understanding of the behavior of a large artifact is the limited capacity of the cognitive apparatus of humans such that a large monolithic pragmatic mental model (PMM) that describes the full behavior of this artifact is not feasible (see also Sect. 2.5 on the limits of human rational cognition). To arrive at models for human analysis that can be handled by the limited capacity of the human mind we can either divide a large model of behavior of an artifact (divide and conquer) into a number of smaller models—the parts—, to restrict our design to static structures or to capture the essence of emergent behavior in a new concept (new conceptualization). In some cases, a combination of these techniques will be most appropriate.
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