Numerical Simulation of Distributed Electromagnetic and Plasma Wave Effect Devices
In this chapter, authors explore time-efficient computational tools geared toward modeling of semiconductor devices at terahertz frequencies. At these frequencies, the time-scale of electron interactions (such as collisions and relaxations) is larger than the time-scale of applied signal’s oscillation cycle, and therefore device response could be slower than the change in applied bias/fields. For such scenarios, electronic motion should be consistently solved with the electrodynamic field calculations, as devices’ response from prior cycle may affect the next cycle. We adopt a “global-full-wave” approach that considers 1D hydrodynamic equations for the electronic modeling and 2D Maxwell’s equation solution for the modeling of terahertz device operation. Specifically, we use finite difference time domain-based scheme for numerically solving the Maxwell’s equations, which are then integrated with upwind-type numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations, via coupling of current and field terms in the solution time steps. In order to increase the efficiency of the solution, approaches using unconditionally stable FDTD methods, such as alternating directional implicit (ADI) FDTD method and iterative ADI FDTD method, are also investigated. The time and accuracy performances of these algorithms are benchmarked against the traditional FDTD (Yee’s staggered grid)-based algorithms.
The developed tools are applied for the phenomenological understanding and the performance prediction of three devices within this work. Firstly, authors investigate the plasma wave instability (also known as Shur’s instability) in short channel high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on InGaAs material system. Secondly, possibility of plasmonic growth is explored in HEMTs which are supported by resonant-tunneling diode at their gate for providing a negative differential media. Finally, phenomenological demonstrations (via simulations) are shown for dual-mode plasmonic propagations in bilayer (double 2D electron gas) channels and gated bilayers in GaN material system.
KeywordsPlasma wave Plasmonic oscillations 2D electron gas Terahertz HEMTs Gan/AlGaN Maxwell’s equations Hydrodynamic equations Electron transport Finite difference time domain Resonant tunneling Instability Discretization Multiscale Multiphysics Electrodynamics Plasmonic amplification
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