Inhorn MC, Serour GI. Islam, medicine, and Arab-Muslim refugee health in America after 9/11. Lancet [Research Support, US Gov’t, Non-PHS Review]. 2011;378(9794):935–43.
Fukuyama M. Taking a universal approach to multicultural counseling. Counsel Educ Supervis. 1990;30:6–17.
Kulwicki A. Health issues among Arab Muslim families. In: Aswad BC, Bilge B, editors. Family and gender among American Muslims: issues facing Middle Eastern immigrants and their descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 1996.
Shaheen JG. The TV, Arabs. Bowling Green: State University Popular Press; 1984.
Suleiman MW. Arabs in the mind of America. Battelboro: Amanda Books; 1988.
Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care: clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Ann Intern Med [Case Reports]. 1978;88(2):251–8.
Saechao F, Sharrock S, Reicherter D, Livingston JD, Aylward A, Whisnant J, et al. Stressors and barriers to using mental health services among diverse groups of first-generation immigrants to the United States. Community Ment Health J [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2012;48(1):98–106.
Derr AS. Mental health service use among immigrants: a systematic review. Psychiatr Serv. 2015;67(3):265–74.
Shannon PJ, Vinson GA, Cook TL, Lennon, Mental Health Service Use Among Immigrants in the United States: A Systematic Review E. Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mental health referrals of refugees. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. 2016;43(4):555–68.
Gladding S. Counseling: a comprehensive profession. New York: Macmillan; 1992.
al-Krenawi A, Graham JR. Culturally sensitive social work practice with Arab clients in mental health settings. Health Soc Work [Review]. 2000;25(1):9–22.
Abraham N. Arab Americans. In: Vecoli RJ, Galens J, Sheets A, Young RV, editors. Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America. New York: Gale Research; 1995.
Amer MM, Hovey JD. Anxiety and depression in a post-September 11 sample of Arabs in the USA. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(3):409–18.
Amer MM, Hovey JD. Socio-demographic differences in acculturation and mental health for a sample of 2nd generation/early immigrant Arab Americans. J Immigr Minor Health [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2007;9(4):335–47.
El-Sayed AM, Tracy M, Scarborough P, Galea S. Suicide among Arab-Americans. PLoS One [Research Support, NIH, Extramural Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2011;6(2):e14704.
Lipson JG, Meleis AI. Methodological issues in research with immigrants. Med Anthropol. 1989;12(1):103–15.
Foundation AAI. Demographics. 2012. http://aai.3cdn.net/2b24e6a8711d521148_5ym6iv4b5.pdf. Accessed Apr 2013.
Nydell M. Communicating with Arabs. In: Yarmouth M, editor. Understanding Arabs: a guide for Westerners. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press; 1987.
Hassoun R. Arab American health and the process of coming to America: lessons from the metropolitan Detroit area. In: Suleiman MW, editor. Arabs in America: building a new future. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 1999.
Hattar-Pollara M, Meleis AI. Parenting their adolescents: the experiences of Jordanian immigrant women in California. Health Care Women Int. 1995;16(3):195–211.
Abudabbeh N. Arab families. In: Goldrick M, Giordano J, Pearce JK, editors. Ethnicity and family therapy. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 1996.
Naff A. Arabs. In: Thernstrom S, editor. Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1980. p. 128–36.
Naff A. Arabs in America: a historical overview. In: Abraham SY, Abraham N, editors. Arabs in America: building a new future. Detroit: Wayne State University, Center for Urban Studies; 1983.
Erickson CD, al-Timimi NR. Providing mental health services to Arab Americans: recommendations and considerations. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol [Review]. 2001;7(4):308–27.
Suleiman MW, Abu-Laban B. Arab Americans: Continuity and change. Arab Studies Quarterly. 1989;11(2/3):1–13.
El-Badry S. The Arab-Americans. Am Demogr. 1994;16(1):22–30.
Naff A. Becoming American: the early Arab immigrant experience. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press; 1985.
Jamil H, Hakim-Larson J, Farrag M, Kafaji T, Jamil LH, Hammad A. Medical complaints among Iraqi American refugees with mental disorders. J Immigr Health. 2005;7(3):145–52.
Jamil H, Hakim-Larson J, Farrag M, Jamil LH. A retrospective study of Arab American mental health clients: trauma and the Iraqi refugees. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2002;72(3):355–61.
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Immigration Statistics. 2016 yearbook of immigration statistics. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics; 2017. https://www.dhs.gov/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2016.
Migration Policy Institute. Middle Eastern and North African immigrants in the United States. January 2018. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/middle-eastern-and-north-african-immigrants-united-states.
World Bank Prospects Group. Annual remittances data. October 2017 Update.
Salari S. Invisible in aging research: Arab Americans, Middle Eastern immigrants, and Muslims in the United States. Gerontologist. 2002;42(5):580–8.
Jaber LA, Brown MB, Hammad A, Nowak SN, Zhu Q, Ghafoor A, et al. Epidemiology of diabetes among Arab Americans. Diabetes Care [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t Research Support, US Gov’t, PHS]. 2003;26(2):308–13.
Moradi B, Hasan NT. Arab American persons’ reported experiences of discrimination and mental health: the mediating role of personal control. J Couns Psychol. 2004;51(4):418–28.
Abu-Ras W, Abu-Bader SH. Risk factors for depression and posttraumatic disorder (PTSD): the case of Arab and Muslim Americans post-9/11. J Immigr Refug Stud. 2009;7:393–418.
Rippy AE, Newman E. Perceived religious discrimination and its relationship to anxiety and paranoia among Muslim Americans. J Muslim Ment Health. 2006;1:5–20.
Gorkin M, Masalha S, Yatziv G. Psychotherapy of Israeli-Arab patients: some cultural considerations. J Psychoanal Anthropol. 1985;8:215–30.
Zayed TM. Conceptual and practical understanding of counseling in Islam. MOJPC. 2017;2(1):15–27.
Ahmed S, Reddy LA. Understanding the mental health needs of American Muslims: recommendations and considerations for practice. J Multicult Couns Dev. 2007;35:207–16.
Meleis A. Arab students in Western universities. J High Educ. 1982;53:439–47.
Bazzoui W. Affective disorders in Iraq. Br J Psychiatry. 1970;117(537):195–203.
al-Krenawi A, Graham JR. Gender and biomedical/traditional mental health utilization among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev. Cult Med Psychiatry [Review]. 1999;23(2):219–43.
al-Krenawi A, Graham JR. Tackling mental illness: roles for old and new disciplines. World Health Forum. 1996;17(3):246–8.
Gorkin M, Othman R. Traditional psychotherapeutic healing and healers in the Palestinian community. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1994;31(3):221–31.
Al-Rowaie OO. Predictors of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among Kuwait University Students. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; 2005.
Fabreka H. Psychiatric stigma in non-Western societies. Compr Psychiatry. 1991;32:534–51.
Abudabbeh N, Nydell MK. Transcultural counseling and Arab Americans. In: McFadden J, editor. Transcultural counseling: bilateral and international perspectives. Alexandria: American Counseling Association; 1993.
Pumariega AJ, Rothe E, Pumariega JB. Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Ment Health J [Review]. 2005;41(5):581–97.
Carlsson JM, Mortensen EL, Kastrup M. Predictors of mental health and quality of life in male tortured refugees. Nord J Psychiatry [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2006;60(1):51–7.
Fazel M, Wheeler J, Danesh J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet [Meta-Analysis Research Support, Non-US Gov’t Review]. 2005;365(9467):1309–14.
Gorman W. Refugee survivors of torture: trauma and treatment. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2001;32:443–51.
American Psychiatric Association. Appendix I: outline for cultural formulation and glossary of cultural-bound syndromes. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Jackson M. Counseling Arab Americans. In: Lee C, editor. Multicultural issues in counseling. 2nd ed. Alexandria: American Counseling Association; 1997.
Dwairy M. Psychotherapy in competition with culture: a case study of an Arab woman. Clin Case Stud. 2002;1(3):254–67.
Comas-Diaz L, Greene B, editors. Women of color: integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press; 1994.
Almeida R, Wood R, Messineo T, Font R.. The cultural context model: an overview In: McGoldrick M, editor. Re-visioning family therapy: race, culture and gender in clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press; 1998.
Gilligan J. Preventing violence. New York: Thames and Hudson; 2001.
Nobles AY, Sciarra DT. Cultural determinants in the treatment of Arab Americans: a primer for mainstream therapists. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2000;70(2):182–91.
Grossbard-Schechtman S, Neuman S. The extra burden of modern wives: clues from Israeli women’s labor supply. Econ Dev Cult Change. 1998;46:491–518.
Meleis A. Between two cultures: identity, roles, and health. Health Care Women Int. 1991;12:365–77.
Frewat-Nikowitz S. Spirituality and social work practice: the example of the Arab population in NYC. Unpublished paper presented at the school for Social Work, Columbia University, New York; 2007.
Berry JW. Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In: Chun KM, Organista PB, Marin G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press; 2003.
Berry JW, Kim U. Acculturation and mental health. In Daesin PR, Berry JW and Sartorius N, editors. Health and cross-cultural psychology: Toward applications. (pp. 207–236). Thousand Oaks: sage Publications Inc: 1998.
Meleis AI, Lipson JG, Paul SM. Ethnicity and health among five Middle Eastern immigrant groups. Nurs Res [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 1992;41(2):98–103.
Montgomery E, Foldspang A. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees. Eur J Pub Health [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2008;18(2):156–61.
Hovey JD, King CA. Suicidality among acculturating Mexican Americans: current knowledge and directions for research. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1997;27(1):92–103.
Organista P, Organista KC, Kurasaki K. Overview of the relation between acculturation and ethnic minority mental health. In: Chun KM, Organista PB, Martin G, editors. Acculturation: advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2003.
Assari S, Lankarani MM. Discrimination and psychological distress: gender differences among Arab Americans. Front Psych. 2017;8(23):1–10.
Kulwicki A, Khalifa R, Moore G. The effects of September 11 on Arab American nurses in metropolitan Detroit. J Transcult Nurs. 2008;19(2):134–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659607313071.
Padela AI, Heisler M. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(2):284–91.
Hammami R. Women, the Hijab and the intifada. http://www.merip.org/mer/mer164/women-hijab-intifada. Accessed Apr 2013.
Takolia N. The hijab has liberated me from society’s expectations of women. The Guardian. 2012.
Ali OM, Milstein G, Marzuk PM. The Imam’s role in meeting the counseling needs of Muslim communities in the United States. Psychiatr Serv [Research Support, Non-US Gov’t]. 2005;56(2):202–5.
El-Sayed AM, Galea S. The health of Arab-Americans living in the United States: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Public Health. 2009;9(272):1–9.
Meleis AI, La Fever CW. The Arab American and psychiatric care. Psychiatr Care. 1984;12(2):72–86.
Haddad L, Hoeman S. Home healthcare and the Arab-American client. Home Healthc Nurse. 2000;18(3):189–97.
American Psychiatric Association. Homosexuality and civil rights: position statement. 1973.
Fowers BJ, Davidov BJ. The virtue of multiculturalism: personal transformation, character, and openness to the other. Am Psychol. 2006;61:581–94.
Sharon E, Emmerich A, Parekh R. Diversity dialogue: an innovative model for diversity training. In: Parekh R, editor. The Massachusetts General Hospital textbook on diversity and cultural sensitivity in mental health. New York: Humana Press; 2014. p. 191–212.
Dossani S. Being Muslim and Gay. In: Que(e)rying religion. New York: The Continuum; 1997.
Dunne BW. Homosexuality in the Middle East: an agenda for historical research. Arab Stud Q. 1990;12:55–82.
Clarke M. New kinship, Islam, and the liberal tradition: sexual morality and new reproductive technologies in Lebanon. J R Anthropol Inst. 2008;14:153–69.
ILGA. Worldwide legislation. 2017. Retrieved from ilga.org/country/Lebanon.
American Psychiatric Association. Principles of medical ethics with annotations especially applicable to psychiatry. Washington, DC; 2013.
American Psychological Association. The American Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2017.
American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association report of the task force on appropriate therapeutic responses to sexual orientation. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2009.
Rodriguez EM. At the intersection of church and gay: religion, spirituality, conflict, and integration in gay, lesbian, and bisexual people of faith. Diss Abstr Int. 2006;67:1742.