Analysis and Application of Normalization Methods with Supervised Feature Weighting to Improve K-means Accuracy

  • Iratxe Niño-AdanEmail author
  • Itziar Landa-Torres
  • Eva Portillo
  • Diana Manjarres
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 950)


Normalization methods are widely employed for transforming the variables or features of a given dataset. In this paper three classical feature normalization methods, Standardization (St), Min-Max (MM) and Median Absolute Deviation (MAD), are studied in different synthetic datasets from UCI repository. An exhaustive analysis of the transformed features’ ranges and their influence on the Euclidean distance is performed, concluding that knowledge about the group structure gathered by each feature is needed to select the best normalization method for a given dataset. In order to effectively collect the features’ importance and adjust their contribution, this paper proposes a two-stage methodology for normalization and supervised feature weighting based on a Pearson correlation coefficient and on a Random Forest Feature Importance estimation method. Simulations on five different datasets reveal that our two-stage proposed methodology, in terms of accuracy, outperforms or at least maintains the K-means performance obtained if only normalization is applied.


Normalization Standardization Weighted Euclidean Distance Pearson correlation Random Forest K-means 



This work has been supported in part by the ELKARTEK program (SeNDANEU KK-2018/00032), the HAZITEK program (DATALYSE ZL-2018/00765) of the Basque Government and a TECNALIA Research and Innovation PhD Scholarship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iratxe Niño-Adan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Itziar Landa-Torres
    • 2
  • Eva Portillo
    • 3
  • Diana Manjarres
    • 1
  1. 1.Tecnalia Research and InnovationDerioSpain
  2. 2.Petronor Innovación S.L.MuskizSpain
  3. 3.Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversity of the Basque Country, UPV/EHUBilbaoSpain

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