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Integration of Processes and Organizations

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Integrated Design Engineering


IDE covers product planning, marketing, industrial design, development and engineering design, process planning, prototype and sample manufacturing as well as testing up to production release (Fig. 2.10). Process integration and organization integration include all measures necessary to describe, consolidate and improve business and development processes and organization forms.

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Change history

  • 17 December 2020



  1. 1.

    Both effects are also referred to as “running targets”.

  2. 2.

    The process term is used here from a purely organizational point of view. It should not be confused with the same term from production, where “process” means the sequence of technological steps and tools used for production and assembly (e.g. manufacturing process, assembly process).

  3. 3.

    At least until the next reorganization of the company.

  4. 4.

    Organizational networks can be configured in the same way as technical networks for coupling computer-supported systems in information technology. Their respective functions and behaviour are also comparable.

  5. 5.

    For example, the first two generations of a minivan for up to seven passengers, marketed under the names Sharan, Galaxy and Alhambra, were jointly developed and built by Volkswagen and Ford.

  6. 6.

    Workflows are used when processes must be reproducible, for example in change and release processes, processes for quality assurance or in accounting.

  7. 7.

    In the automotive industry, for example, fixed variants of the components of a vehicle must be available at certain points in time in order not to endanger the start of production of a product.

  8. 8.

    In large, “to be agile” means to be able to move quickly and easily, often following an impulse to improvise activities in a flexible way without planning far ahead.

  9. 9.

    As to be agile means to move quickly and lightly as well as to be mentally quick, there may be a connection to the rugby terms “scrum” (short form of scrummage) and “sprint” for a short and fast run with the ball.

  10. 10.

    A burn-down diagram is a graphical representation that shows over time the unprocessed tasks of the project and thus the work still to be done for the project.

  11. 11.

    Meetings to summarize the results and progress of the project.

  12. 12.

    A person, who applies tags to the artefacts being generated in order to register the technical skills necessary to develop the characteristics associated with artefact in question (see also Fig. 17.19).

  13. 13.

    However, the different meanings of the term lean are thin, undernourished, unhealthy and scarce.

  14. 14.

    This approach is not new: As early as 1915, Lillian M. Gilbreth focused her consulting work in companies on the avoidance of waste in a physical and a figurative sense [Lanc-2004].

  15. 15.

    The colloquial British English term for “crowd” (both in public and in sport) is “scrum”. This name became a generic term for a certain form of quick daily exchange and consolidation of information on the results achieved since the last Scrum, especially in software development projects (see Sect.

  16. 16.

    This principle is also known in Sweden as the “Lagom” principle. For this term there is no direct translation in German, it can mean for example “good enough”, “not too little and not too much”, “just right”, “fair share”. The term refers to a balance of requirements and it neither has a negative meaning, nor does it claim perfection.

  17. 17.

    This assumption should not be confused with the recommendation to work on only one thing at a time (and not several at the same time). Processing only one task at a time allows you to concentrate fully on that task and thus complete it with an appropriate result in an acceptable time. In contrast, in multitasking about 2/3 of the available human concentration power is consumed by switching between the different tasks and, before the actual processing begins, restoring the respective processing states of the individual tasks [KuSe-2008, Schw-2012].

  18. 18.

    Further testing and assessment options are discussed in Chap. 25.

  19. 19.

    “Simplicity” in this context means the art of minimizing the amount of work done without compromising the agreed results (c.f. also Sect. 1.8).

  20. 20.

    This is the case, for example, with an unplanned transfer of unfinished results within the framework of Simultaneous Engineering (see Fig. 17.4).

  21. 21.

    This name originated from the last name of the Gilbreth couple read backwards.

  22. 22.

    The works of the Gilbreth couple can be viewed at Purdue University (West Lafayette, and in part at the Boston Public Library ( They are also available from the American Institute of Industrial Engineers, IIE (

  23. 23.

    In her doctoral thesis, Freisleben uses a knowledge-based procedure model with only 51 process elements to model new design from any industry branch. Accordingly, even fewer process elements are required for modelling adaptation design or variant design. Almost 100 methods, procedures, tools and aids are provided for the process elements [Frei-2001].

  24. 24.

    In the morphological box (also called morphological matrix)a task is divided into subtasks. These are entered in the first column of the box. Solution alternatives are developed for each subtask and entered in the respective line. To create a new solution, individual solution alternatives are combined for each subtask. Only those combinations are possible in which the respective material, energy and information flows are compatible between the two meeting solution alternatives. The combinations can be evaluated in different ways, for example with the connection matrix according to Roth [Roth-1982].

  25. 25.

    BPMN is the abbreviation of Business Process Model and Notation. This specification language is used to model and graphically represent workflows and processes. An extensive symbol library and rules for linking them are available for this purpose [FrRH-2010, SzSV-2013].

  26. 26.

    This traceability plays an important role in questions of product liability. The company must be able to prove that it has not made any mistakes in the development, manufacture and sale of the product (proof of relief in the Product Liability Act [EU-85/374]).

  27. 27.

    A dysfunction is a disturbance or a malfunction that leads to an impaired or abnormal function and/or behaviour of a creature or an artefact.

  28. 28.

    Abbreviation of Système d’Aide au Choix d’Acteur et aux Décisions d’Organisation (supporting system to select actors and to support decisions in organizations).

  29. 29.

    VUCA is a combined acronym for Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity. The same acronym also serves for describing a strategy to overcome the problems of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. In this case VUCA reads as Vision, Understanding‚ Clarity, and Agility.

  30. 30.

    Horizontality is a structuring principle that doesn’t come from hierarchical (i.e. vertical) structures, in which the hierarchy regulates access to information, resources, positions of power, etc., but from flat and equivalent (network) structures, in which the principle of diversity applies to all participants and in which there is no centre, no single individual or organization that may speak in the name of the whole network and in which the only decision-making process is consensus [Wain-2007].

  31. 31.

    The meaning of “agencing” (based on the French word “agencer”, of which the English translation can be “to contrive” or “to arrange” something) is both “organizing” and “giving agency”; it thus designates a process by which various entities are connected, coordinated, and put in motion [Oxfo-2019].

  32. 32.

    For more about Creative Capacity Building, see e.g. [DrSG-2017].

  33. 33.

    This description is based on results from the User Centred Design Workshop 2018 at the Universidad del Bío-Bío (Chile). the student team to perform this case study consisted of N. Olivera, C. Crino, and R. Valladares. the study was a part of a research work supported by the CONICYT FONDECYT 1171037 project.


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Vajna, S., Ottosson, S., Rothkötter, S., Stal-Le Cardinal, J., Briede-Westermeyer, J.C. (2020). Integration of Processes and Organizations. In: Vajna, S. (eds) Integrated Design Engineering. Springer, Cham.

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