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Fulfilment Attributes

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Integrated Design Engineering


In this chapter, the attributes safety, reliability and quality are presented in more detail, with which the fulfilment of the requirements can be assessed by the product attributes. The interaction of the three attributes is described in Sects. 3.2.2 and 3.4.

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  1. 1.

    This is partly due to the fact that potential users of the product do not obtain sufficient information from the instruction manual, because it is often incomplete and insufficiently formulated.

  2. 2.

    VDI Guideline 3542 Sheet 4: “Robustness [means] that a system is forgiving of operating errors and largely insensitive to deviations from the specified operating conditions.” [VDI-3542]

  3. 3.

    Directive 85/374 EEC, Art. 11: “In order to be able to provide evidence of exoneration in possible product liability cases, it must be possible to trace back the state of design and the associated modifications for at least 10 years after the product has been placed on the market” [EEC-1985].

  4. 4.

    For example, ISO 26262 for the safety of motor vehicles [ISO-26262] and ISO 13849 for the safety of Machinery [ISO-13849].

  5. 5.

    Here, Hubka goes further, describing reliability as part of the operating characteristics of a system that is on the same level as operational safety, lifetime, energy consumption, space consumption and maintainability [Hubk-1984].

  6. 6.

    R(t) derived from “Reliability”

  7. 7.

    The fatigue strength range in the Wöhler diagram is characterized by the inclined fatigue strength line, in which a load leads to failure of the product after a defined number of finite cycles. The following applies: The higher the load, the more likely it is that failure will occur [Haib-2006].

  8. 8.

    Waloddi Weibull (1887–1979), professor at KTH Stockholm, developed the distribution function named after him in the 1930s. He published his research results in 1951 under the title “A statistical distribution function of wide applicability” in the Journal of Mechanics (9)1951, page 293–297.

  9. 9.

    The following conditions shall be attached to a random sample: The test specimens are randomly taken from the population and the probability with which a test specimen enters the sample can be specified [SaHe-2006].

  10. 10.

    Shell-shaped material breakout on the surface of the tooth flank of a gearwheel caused by alternating stresses. English term: Pitting

  11. 11.

    A load-time or a load-displacement record continuously records the behaviour of a variable (usually a load) over the distance travelled or over time for a specified duration.

  12. 12.

    Characteristics and properties as defined by Weber [Webe-2005], according to which characteristics can be directly influenced by the product developer (e.g. dimensions and material), while properties result from the interaction of characteristics (e.g. functions and usability)

  13. 13.

    This field will not be discussed in detail here. Relevant literature is for example [Masi-2007, GeKo-2008], the corresponding standard is DIN EN ISO 9000 Quality Management [DIN-9000].

  14. 14.

    In 1943, Kaoru Ishikawa (1915–1989) developed what is often referred to as a “herringbone slide-gram” because of its shape, in order to visualize possible causes that can influence a problem in a structured arrangement.

  15. 15.

    Captain Edward A. Murphy (1908–1990) worked as an engineer in the American Air Force. During tests to measure the maximum acceleration of gravity a human being can withstand, he formulated the law later named after him in about 1949 on the basis of erroneous measurements in which errors had occurred due to human negligence and incapacity.

  16. 16.

    Very detailed descriptions of the QFD and its further possibilities (which are not discussed here) can be found at Hehenberger [Hehe-2011] and Saatweber [Saat-2016].


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Dazer, M., Bertsche, B., Vajna, S. (2020). Fulfilment Attributes. In: Vajna, S. (eds) Integrated Design Engineering. Springer, Cham.

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