Advertisement

Registering English Battlefields: The Constructive Conservation of Historic Environments

  • Carly D. SibiliaEmail author
  • Geoffrey Carter
  • Todd R. Lookingbill
Chapter
Part of the Landscape Series book series (LAEC, volume 25)

Abstract

The extensive history of warfare in England offers abundant opportunities for the conservation of historic land and its associated heritage and natural capital. Since 1995, the Register of Historic Battlefields has recognized English battlefields of exceptional historical value. To date, 46 out of at least 500 known English battlefield sites have been formally registered. While registered status provides a degree of extra protection against development, interpretation of undefined terms in planning legislation results in varied levels of conservation. Such challenges emphasize the importance of effective management, as registered sites can make significant contributions to local ecosystems as well as neighboring communities. In this study, we provide a brief history of English battlefield designation and conservation. We describe specific ecosystem services provided by battlefield landscapes through three case studies that vary along a management and land use gradient. For each location, we describe the types of ecosystem services provided, the management methods and goals, and the persisting threats. We also examine the potential differences in land cover for the registered battlefields and the surrounding landscapes. Despite differences in time of relevance, area, and habitat type, Naseby, Bosworth, and Maldon Battlefield each demonstrates the benefits of identifying and recognizing land historically associated with warfare. While formal recognition of the 46 registered battlefields conveys a certain level of appreciation and awareness, maintaining and improving the ecological condition of these sites is necessary to support regional biodiversity as well as surrounding communities and local economies.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to offer special thanks to the Battlefields Trust for their generous support and overwhelming enthusiasm for this project and its goals. We also wish to acknowledge the invaluable contributions provided by Martin Marix-Evans, Glenn Foard, and Stephen P. Nunn, alongside a number of experts from the National Trust and Historic England. Assistance provided by staff at the University of Richmond was greatly appreciated, including technical guidance by Kim Browne and Taylor Holden in the Department of Geography’s Spatial Analysis Lab, and library support by Samantha Guss at the University’s Boatwright Memorial Library.

References

  1. Allison Farmer Associates (AFA), Leicester County Council, English Heritage. (2013). Bosworth Battlefield: The way forward. http://www.hwa.uk.com/site/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/EB-23.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2016.
  2. Battlefields Trust. (2012). Battlefields Trust statement on planning (Unpublished internal document).Google Scholar
  3. Battlefields Trust. (2018). Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council agree plans to build on Bosworth Battlefield. http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/news.asp?NewsArticleID=233&Refresh=21%2F5%2F2019+3%3A00%3A36+PM. Accessed 21 May 2019.
  4. Bessinger, J. B. (1963). Maldon and the olafsdrapa: An historical caveat. In S. B. Greenfield (Ed.), Studies in old English literature (pp. 23–35). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Biggs, P. A., & Biggs, S. (2002). Leicestershire & Rutland walks with children. Ammanford: Sigma Leisure.Google Scholar
  6. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News. (2006). Cash boost for Naseby battlefield: A project to boost tourism at Northamptonshire’s historic Naseby battlefield site has secured funding of more than £200,000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/northamptonshire/4772046.stm. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.
  7. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News. (2013). Naseby battlefield visitor centre to open in church. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-northamptonshire-22690383. Accessed 9 Sept 2016.
  8. Brooks, R. (2005). Cassell’s battlefields of Britain and Ireland. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, G. B. (1905). the care of ancient monuments: An account of the legislative and other measures adopted in European countries for protecting ancient monuments and objects and scenes of natural beauty, and for preserving the aspect of historical cities. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bruce-Lockhard, L. (2008). Conservation principles, policies and guidance for the sustainable management of the historic environment. https://historicengland.org.uk/advice/constructive-conservation/. Accessed 3 Apr 2017.
  11. Buhalis, D., Darcy, S., & Ambrose, I. (Eds.). (2012). Best practice in accessible tourism: Inclusion, disability, ageing population and tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Catling, C. (2013). Constructive conservation: sustainable growth for historic places. Pureprint Group Ltd. https://content.historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/constructive-conservation-sustainable-growth-historic-places/Acc_ConConservation.pdf/. Accessed 15 June 2016.
  13. Céréghino, R., Ruggiero, A., Marty, P., & Angélibert, S. (2008a). Biodiversity and distribution patterns of freshwater invertebrates in farm ponds of south-western French agricultural landscapes. Hydrobiologia, 597(1), 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Céréghino, R., Biggs, J., Oertli, B., & Declerck, S. (2008b). The ecology of European ponds: defining the characteristics of a neglected freshwater habitat. Hydrobiologia, 597(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandler, D. G. (1989). Introduction: Regular and irregular warfare. The International History Review, 11(1), 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christy, M. (1906). A history of salt-making in Essex. Essex Naturalist: Being the Journal of the Essex Field Club, 14–15, 193–204.Google Scholar
  17. Colclough, S., Fonseca, L., Astley, T., Thomas, K., & Watts, W. (2005). Fish utilization of managed realignments. Fisheries Management & Ecology, 12, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Conduit, B. (2004). Battlefield walks in the Midlands. Ammanford: Sigma Leisure.Google Scholar
  19. Copping, J. (2012). Wind farm to be built at site of decisive Civil War battle. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/energy/windpower/8999705/Wind-farm-to-be-built-at-site-of-decisive-Civil-War-battle.html. Accessed 16 Aug 2016.
  20. Coskun, B. S. (2015). Constructive conservation: a British approach to conservation. Paper presented at the 3rd international conference on documentation, conservation, and reuse of architectural heritage and landscape, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey, 26 Oct 2015.Google Scholar
  21. Dabney, S. M., Liu, Z., Lane, M., Douglas, J., Zhu, J., & Flanagan, D. C. (1999). Landscape benching from tillage erosion between grass hedges. Soil and Tillage Research, 51(3–4), 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies, Z. G., & Pullin, A. S. (2007). Are hedgerows effective corridors between fragments of woodland habitat? An evidence-based approach. Landscape Ecology, 22, 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies, B. R., Biggs, J., Williams, P. J., Lee, J. T., & Thompson, S. (2008). A comparison of the catchment sizes of rivers, streams, ponds, ditches and lakes: implications for protecting aquatic biodiversity in an agricultural landscape. Hydrobiologia, 597(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Department for Communities and Local Government. (2012). National planning policy framework. London: Crown.Google Scholar
  25. Dover, J., & Sparks, T. (2000). A review of the ecology of butterflies in British hedgerows. Journal of Environmental Management, 60(1), 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Drury, P., & McPherson, A. (2008). Conservation principles, policies and guidance. English Heritage. https://historicengland.org.uk/advice/constructive-conservation/conservation-principles/. Accessed 28 June 2017.
  27. English Heritage. (1995a). English Heritage battlefield report: Naseby 1645. https://content.historicengland.org.uk/content/docs/battlefields/naseby.pdf. Accessed 8 Sept 2016.
  28. English Heritage. (1995b). English Heritage battlefield report: Maldon 991. https://content.historicengland.org.uk/content/docs/battlefields/maldon.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2016.
  29. English Heritage. (1995c). English Heritage Battlefield report: Bosworth 1485. http://politics.leics.gov.uk/documents/s86833/12.%20Bosworth%20Battlefield%20Conservation%20Plan%20-%20Appendix%20A%20-%20Annex%202%20part%202.pdf. Accessed 15 Sept 2016.
  30. English Heritage. (2016). About us: Our history. English Heritage. http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/about-us/our-history/. Accessed 6 June 2016.
  31. Essex Biodiversity Project (EBP). (2012). Essex Biodiversity Action Plan 2010–2020: Vision for Essex Coastal Saltmarsh.. http://www.essexbiodiversity.org.uk/app/webroot/files/ebap2010/13%20COASTAL%20SALTMARSH%20BAP.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2016.
  32. Ferguson, N. (2013). Biting the bullet: The role of hobbyist metal detecting within battlefield archaeology. Internet Archaeology, 33.  https://doi.org/10.11141/ia.33.3.
  33. Foard, G. (2003). Maldon Battlefield and Campaign. The UK Battlefields Resource Centre. http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/media/149.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foard, G. (2008). Conflict in the pre-industrial landscape of England: A resource assessment. University of Leeds. http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/resource-centre/battlefieldsuk/periodpageview.asp?pageid=831. Accessed 16 July 2016.
  35. Foard, G., & Curry, A. (2013). Bosworth 1485: A battlefield rediscovered. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  36. Foard, G., & Morris, R. (2012). The archaeology of English battlefields: conflict in the pre-industrial landscape (CBA research report 168). York: Council for British Archaeology, 86(333), 943–944.Google Scholar
  37. Forman, R. T., & Baudry, J. (1984). Hedgerows and hedgerow networks in landscape ecology. Environmental Management, 8(6), 495–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freer-Smith, P. H., Holloway, S., & Goodman, A. (1997). The uptake of particulates by an urban woodland: Site description and particulate composition. Environmental Pollution, 95(1), 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fuller, R. M., Groom, G. B., & Jones, A. R. (1994). The Land Cover Map of Great Britain: An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 60(50), 553–562.Google Scholar
  40. Fuller, R. M., Smith, G. M., Sanderson, J. M., Hill, R. A., & Thomson, A. G. (2002). The UK Land Cover Map 2000: Construction of a parcel-based vector map from satellite images. Cartographic Journal, 39, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garbutt, A., & Wolters, M. (2008). The natural regeneration of salt marsh on formerly reclaimed land. Applied Vegetation Science, 11(3), 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffiths, P. (2011). Appeal decision APP/Y2810/A/11/2154375. The Planning Inspectorate. http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/cms/upload/docs/274/windfarm_decision_document.pdf. Accessed 21 Aug 2016.
  43. Hinckley & Bosworth Borough Council. (2009). Ashby Canal conservation area. http://www.hinckley-bosworth.gov.uk/download/downloads/id/1494/appraisal.pdf. Accessed 14 Sept 2016.
  44. Hinckley & Bosworth Borough Council. (2014). Bosworth Battlefield: The way forward (Report of deputy chief executive). http://moderngov.hinckley-bosworth.gov.uk/documents/s3690/BosworthBattlefieldCA.pdf. Accessed 18 Sept 2016.
  45. Hinsley, S. A., & Bellamy, P. E. (2000). The influence of hedge structure, management and landscape context on the value of hedgerows to birds: A review. Environmental Management, 60(1), 33–49.Google Scholar
  46. Historic England. (2016). Registered battlefields. Historic England. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/what-is-designation/registered-battlefields/. Accessed July 8 2016.
  47. Historic England. (2017a). Download listing data. Historic England. https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/data-downloads/. Accessed 5 Sept 2017.
  48. Historic England. (2017b). Battlefields registration selection guide. https://historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/dsg-battlefields/heag072-battlefields-rsg/. Accessed 14 May 2018.
  49. Hourdequin, M., & Havlick, D. G. (2016). Restoring layered landscapes: History, ecology, and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Ingram, M. (2016). Bosworth 1485. Dundurn: Battle story.Google Scholar
  51. Jeeves, M. (2010). Space for wildlife Leicester, Leicestershire and Rutland Biodiversity Action Plan 2010–2015. Leicester & Rutland Wildlife Trust. http://www.lrwt.org.uk/media/uploads/miscellaneous/space_for_wildife_2010-2015__2011_revision_.pdf. Accessed 19 Sept 2016.
  52. Kuvlesky, W. P., Jr., Brennan, L. A., Morrison, M. L., Boydston, K. K., Ballard, B. M., & Bryant, F. C. (2007). Wind energy development and wildlife conservation: Challenges and opportunities. Wildlife Management, 71(8), 2487–2498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laborde, E. D. (1925). The site of the Battle of Maldon. The English Historical Review, 40(158), 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Larsen, P. F., & Doggett, L. F. (1991). The macroinvertebrate fauna associated with the mud flats of the Gulf of Maine. Journal of Coastal Research, 7(2), 365–375.Google Scholar
  55. Lotze, H. K., Lenihan, H. S., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R. G., Kay, M. C., Kidwell, S. M., Kirby, M. X., Peterson, C. H., & Jackson, J. B. C. (2006). Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science, 312, 1806–1809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Magnus, L. (2015). Valuing our past enriching our future: Historic England corporate plan 2015 to 2018. Historic England. https://content.historicengland.org.uk/images-books/publications/he-corp-plan-2015-18/he-corp-plan-2015-18.pdf/. Accessed 15 June 2016.
  57. Marix Evans, M. (2011). Naseby Field, the site of the battle on 14 June 1645. Battlefield Trust, 16(3), 10–13.Google Scholar
  58. Marix Evans, M. (2014). Presenting naseby. Arms & Armour, 11(1), 16–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marsh, S. (2016). Battlefield threats: A policy approach. Battlefields Trust. http://www.battlefieldstrust.com/cms/upload/docs/343/20160409managing_battlefield_threats_policy_paper_v1_1.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2016.
  60. Marshall, E. J. P., & Moonen, A. C. (2002). Field margins in northern Europe: their functions and interactions with agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 89, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Masero, J. A., & Pérez-Hurtado, A. (2001). Importance of supratidal habitats for maintaining overwintering shorebird populations: how redshanks use tidal mudflats and adjacent saltworks in southern Europe. The Condor, 103(1), 21–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McCollin, D., Jackson, J. I., Bunce, R. G. H., Barr, C. J., & Stuart, R. (2000). Hedgerows as habitats for woodland plants. Environmental Management, 60, 77–90.Google Scholar
  63. Milne, R., & Brown, T. A. (1997). Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain. Environmental Management, 49(4), 413–433.Google Scholar
  64. Moller, I., & Spencer, T. (2002). Wave dissipation over macrotidal saltmarshes: Effects of saltmarsh edge typology and vegetation change. Journal of Coastal Research, 36, 506–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morton, D., Rowland, C., Meek, L., Marston, C., Smith, G., & Simpson, I. C. (2011). Final report for LCM2007 – the new UK land cover map. CS Technical Report, No 11/07. NERC/Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. 108 pp. (CEH project number: C03259).Google Scholar
  66. Murray, D. (2015). An archaeological survey of the United Kingdom, 1896. London: Forgotten Books.Google Scholar
  67. National Trust. (2013). Governance handbook fourth edition July 2013. https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/documents/governance-handbook-4th-edition-2013.pdf. Accessed 21 July 2016.
  68. National Trust. (2014). Northey Island and South House Farm statement of significance (Unpublished internal document).Google Scholar
  69. North West Leicestershire District Council (NWLDC). (2001). Ashby Canal conservation area appraisal and study. https://www.nwleics.gov.uk/files/documents/ashby_de_la_zouch_canal_conservation_area_appraisal_and_study/Ashby%20de%20la%20Zouch%20Canal%20Conservation%20Area%20Appraisal%20and%20Study.pdf .Accessed 12 Sept 2016.
  70. Nunn, S. P. (2013). 991- was it really the Battle of Heybridge? The Journal of the Maldon Archaeological and Historical Group, 26, 18–25.Google Scholar
  71. Öckinger, E., & Smith, H. G. (2006). Semi-natural grasslands as population sources for pollinating insects in agricultural landscapes. Applied Ecology, 44(1), 50–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oreszczyn, S., & Lane, A. (2000). The meaning of hedgerows in the English landscape: different stakeholder perspectives and the implications for future hedge management. Environmental Management, 60, 101–118.Google Scholar
  73. Partida, T., Hall, D., & Foard, G. (2013). A Battlefield landscape: Naseby and the upper Welland. Historic Environment Report: Zone 1 preparatory to an atlas of Northamptonshire: The Medieval and Early-Modern Landscape. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  74. Petty, G. R., Jr., & Petty, S. (1976). Geology and the Battle of Maldon. Speculum, 51(3), 435–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pollard, T. (2003). The value of enmity: Remaking and revisiting historic battlefields in the United States and Britain. Landscapes, 4(2), 25–34.Google Scholar
  76. Potts, S. G., Woodcock, B. A., Roberts, S. P. M., Tscheulin, T., Pilgram, E. S., Brown, V. K., & Tallowin, J. R. (2009). Enhancing pollinator biodiversity in intensive grasslands. Applied Ecology, 46(2), 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rayner, M. (2007). English battlefields: 500 battlefields that shaped English history. Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  78. Rough Guides. (2012). The Rough Guide to Britain. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  79. Ryan, C. (Ed.). (2007). Battlefield tourism: History, place, and interpretation (pp. 30–43). Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.Google Scholar
  80. Sargent, A. (2001). “RCHME” 1908–1998: a history of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, 45, 57–80.Google Scholar
  81. Scheffer, M., Van Geest, G. J., Zimmer, K., Jeppesen, E., Søndergaard, M., Butler, M. G., Hanson, M. A., Declerck, S., & De Meester, L. (2006). Small habitat size and isolation can promote species richness: second-order effects on biodiversity in shallow lakes and ponds. Organismal Biology, 112(1), 227–231.Google Scholar
  82. Shepherd, D., Jickles, T., Andrews, J., Cave, R. R., Ledoux, L., Turner, K., Watkinson, A., Aldridge, J., Malcolm, S., Parker, R., & Young, E. (2005). Integrated modeling of an estuarine environment: an assessment of managed realignment options (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Technical Report 21). Norwich: University of East Anglia.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, P., Ashmore, M. R., Black, H. I. J., Burgess, P. J., Evans, C. D., Quine, T. A., Thomson, A. M., Hicks, K., & Orr, H. G. (2012). REVIEW: The role of ecosystems and their management in regulating climate, and soil, water and air quality. Applied Ecology, 50(4), 812–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Technische Universität Darmstadt. (2013). Is a constructive conservation the last chance for biodiversity? Pragmatic approach to saving what can be saved. ScienceDaily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131010104925.htm. Accessed 8 Sept 2016.
  85. Torres, A., Jaeger, J. A. G., & Alonso, J. C. (2016). Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development. PNAS, 113(30), 8472–8477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Valatin, G., & Starling, J. (2010). UK NEA economic analysis report: 8-Valutation of ecosystem services provided by UK woodlands. http://uknea.unep-wcmc.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=TxLTiDHKooI%3D&tabid=82. Accessed 17 Sept 2016.
  87. Whittingham, M. J., & Evans, K. L. (2004). The effects of habitat structure on predation risk of birds in agricultural landscapes. Ibis, 146, 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Williams, P., Whitfield, M., Biggs, J., Bray, S., Fox, G., Nicolet, P., & Sear, D. (2003). Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England. Biological Conservation, 115, 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolton, R. J., Morris, R. K. A., Pollard, K. A., & Dover, J. W. (2013). Understanding the combined biodiversity benefits of the component features of hedges (Report of Defra project BD5214).Google Scholar
  90. Yan, Z., Baoyuan, L., Qingchun, Z., & Yun, X. (2003). Effect of different vegetation types on soil erosion by water. Acta Botanica Sinica, 45(10), 1204–1209.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carly D. Sibilia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Geoffrey Carter
    • 2
  • Todd R. Lookingbill
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of RichmondRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Battlefields TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of Geography and the EnvironmentUniversity of RichmondRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations