Silicon (Si)- and Zinc (Zn)-Solubilizing Microorganisms: Role in Sustainable Agriculture

  • Narendra Kumawat
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • U. R. Khandkar
  • R. K. Yadav
  • Kirti Saurabh
  • J. S. Mishra
  • M. L. Dotaniya
  • Hansraj Hans
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 55)


Across the world today, loss of the health of the soil is a key constraint causing reduced soil productivity and fertility, and also influencing crop yield, all major threats to food security. Intensive use of land by farmers, without undertaking appropriate nutrient management practices, results in the removal of more nutrients from the soil, which is connected to the decline in the productivity of crops. Plants need various nutrients in different ratios for their growth and development. The plants obtain these essential nutrients from soil, water, and air. Some of these nutrients are required in large amounts, whereas others are necessary in only small quantities for vegetative and reproductive growth of crop plants. As per recent speculation, reduced yield is mainly associated with reduction in the appropriate supply of nitrogen (N) by the soil, although total available N remains unaffected. In rice, silicon-solubilizing microorganisms have been noticed recently as more important for their role in the solubilization and mobilization of silicate minerals, rendering K (potassium) silicate and making potassium and silicon easily available to crop plants. Major causes of zinc deficiency in India are intensifying cultivation, unbalanced supply of nutrients, generally without zinc (Zn), and the predominance of lands with low organic matter content, calcareous nature, and high pH. Alternately, numerous microorganisms, especially those allied with roots, may increase the growth and productivity of plants. In the recent few years the use of Zn-solubilizing bacteria (ZSBs) as bio-fertilizers has acquired momentum, and bacteria are significant in improving soil nutrient content and sustaining crop production. ZSBs have been proven to have great ability to enhance Zn availability in the rhizosphere and to improve Zn supply to crop plants. Many genetically modified strains (GMSs) may be able to mobilize/solubilize more plant nutrients from the root zone. Development of GMSs with improved solubilization/mobilization of nutrients through genetic engineering and DNA technology is necessary to maintain an environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture production system. Plant breeding strategies also appear to be a more reliable and cost-effective technique to enhance Zn content in plants. This chapter is mainly focused on silicon and zinc microorganisms, their role in the uptake mechanisms and solubilization activities in plants relative to nutrient dynamics, and the potential to apply this knowledge in managing a sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture system.


Enzymatic activities Mechanisms Significance Silicon-solubilizing bacteria Sustainable agriculture Zinc-solubilizing bacteria 



The authors thank our esteemed reviewers involved directly or indirectly for their substantial critical comments and suggestions to improve the quality of this chapter.


  1. Agnihorti VP (1970) Solubilization of insoluble phosphates by some soil fungi isolated from nursery seedbeds. Can J Microbiol 16:877–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aleksandrov VG (1958) Organo-mineral fertilizers and silica bacteria. Dokl Akad S Kh Nauk 7:43–48Google Scholar
  3. Alexander M (1997) Introduction to soil microbiology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloway BJ (2008) Zinc in soils and crop nutrition, 2nd edn. IZA and IFA, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  5. Avakyan ZA, Pavavarova TA, Karavako GI (1986) Properties of a new species, Bacillus mucilaginous. Microbiologica 55:477–482Google Scholar
  6. Barker WW, Welch SA, Chu S, Baneld JF (1998) Experimental observations of the effects of bacteria on aluminosilicate weathering. Am Mineral 83:1551–1563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Basile-Doelsch RG, Amundson W, Stone CA, Masiello J, Bottero F, Colin F, Masin D, Borschneck J, Meunier JD (2005) Mineralogical control of organic carbon dynamics in a volcanic ash soil on La Reunion. Eur J Soil Sci 56:689–703. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baylis AD, Gragopoulou C, Davidson KJ, Birchall JD (1994) Effects of silicon on the toxicity of aluminium to soybean. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 25:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bélanger RR, Benhamou N, Menzies JG (2003) Cytological evidence of an active role of silicon in wheat resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici). Phytopathology 93:402–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biari A, Gholami A, Rahmani HA (2008) Growth promotion and enhanced nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) by application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in arid region of Iran. J Biol Sci 8:1015–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boehle J, Lindsay WL (1969) Micronutrients, the fertilizer shoe-nails, pt. 6. In the limelight–zinc. Fertil Soln 13:6–12Google Scholar
  12. Brunings AM, Datnoff LE, Ma JF, Mitani N, Nagamura Y, Rathinasabapathi B (2009) Differential gene expression of rice in response to silicon and rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Ann Appl Biol 155:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bullen P, Kemila APF (1997) Influence of pH on the toxic effect of zinc, cadmium and pentachlorophenol on pure cultures of soil microorganisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cakmak I (2000) Possible roles of zinc in protecting plant cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. New Phytol 146:185–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, McClafferty B (2010) Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chem 87:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaudhary SK, Thakur SK, Pandey AK (2007) Response of wetland rice to nitrogen and zinc. Oryza 44:44–47Google Scholar
  17. Cornelis JT, Delvauz B, Georg RB, Lucas Y, Ranger J, Opfergelt S (2011) Tracing the origin of dissolved silicon transferred from various soil-plant systems towards rivers: a review. Biogeosciences 8:89–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crane FL, Sun IL, Clark MG (1985) Transplasma-membrane redox systems in growth and evelopment. Biochim Biophys Acta 811:233–264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Cunninghan JE, Kuiack C (1992) Production of citric acid and oxalic acid and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium billai. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:1451–1458Google Scholar
  20. Di Simine CD, Sayer JA, Gadd GM (1998) Solubilization of zinc phosphate by a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from a forest soil. Biol Fertil Soils 28:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein E (1994) The anomaly of silicon in plant biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11–17PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Epstein E (1999) Silicon. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:641–664PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Epstein E, Bloom AJ (2005) Mineral nutrition of plants: principles and perspectives, 2nd edn. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  24. Fasim F, Ahmed N, Parsons R, Gadd GM (2002) Solubilization of zinc salts by bacterium isolated by the air environment of tannery. FEMS Microbiol Lett 213:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fauteux F, Remus-Borel W, Menzies JG, Belanger RR (2005) Silicon and plant disease resistance against pathogenic fungi. FEMS Microbiol Lett 249:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. French-Monar R, Rodrigues FA, Korndöfer GH, Datnoff LE (2010) Silicon suppresses Phytophthora blight development on bell pepper. J Phytopathol 158:554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gandhi A, Muralidharan G (2016) Assessment of zinc solubilizing potentiality of Acinetobacter sp. isolated from rice rhizosphere. Eur J Soil Biol 76:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gascho GJ (1978) Response of sugarcane to calcium silicate slag. I. Mechanisms of response in Florida. Proc Fla Soil Crop Sci Soc 37:55–58Google Scholar
  29. Ghareeb H, Bozsó Z, Ott PG, Repenning C, Stahl F, Wydra K (2011) Transcriptome of silicon-induced resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in the silicon non-accumulator tomato implicates priming effect. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 75:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glick B (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Hindawi, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Glick BR, Patten CL, Holguin G, Penrose DM (1999) Biochemical and genetic mechanisms used by plant growth promoting bacteria. Imperial College Press, London, pp 215–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldschmidt VM (1954) Geochemistry. Oxford University Press (Claredon), LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Goteti PK, Emmanuel LDA, Desai S, Shaik MHA (2013) Prospective zinc solubilising bacteria for enhanced nutrient uptake and growth promotion in maize (Zea mays L.). Int J Microbiol 2013:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gurmani AR, Khan SU, Andaleep RK, Waseem KA (2012) Soil application of zinc improves growth and yield of tomato. Int J Agric Biol 14:91–96Google Scholar
  35. Han J, Gong P, Reddig K, Mitra M, Guo P, Li HS (2006) The fly CAMTA transcription factor potentiates deactivation of rhodopsin, a G protein-coupled light receptor. Cell 127:847–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hattori T, Inanaga S, Araki H, An P, Mortia S, Luxova M, Lux A (2005) Application of silicon enhanced drought tolerance in Sorghum bicolor. Physiol Plant 123:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayasaka T, Fujii H, Ishiguro K (2008) The role of silicon in preventing appressorial penetration by the rice blast fungus. Phytopathology 98:1038–1044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. He CQ, Tan G, Liang X, Du W, Chen Y, Zhi G (2010) Effect of Zn-tolerant bacterial strains on growth and Zn accumulation in Orychophragmus violaceus. Appl Soil Ecol 44:1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Helmke PA, Koons RD, Schomberg PJ, Iskandar IK (1977) Determination of trace element contamination of sediments by multielement analysis of the clay-size fraction. Environ Sci Technol 11:984–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hodson MJ, White PJ, Mead A, Broadley MR (2005) Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Ann Bot 96:1027–1046PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huang CH, Roberts PD, Datnoff LE (2011) Silicon suppresses Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. J Phytopathol 159:546–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hughes MN, Poole RK (1991) Metal speciation and microbial growth: the hard and soft facts. J Gen Microbiol 137:725–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hutchins SR, Davidson MS, Brierley JA, Brierley CL (1986) Micro-organisms in reclamation of metals. Annu Rev Microbiol 40:311–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Imran M, Gurmani ZA (2011) Role of macro and micro nutrients in the plant growth and development. Science Technology and Development, Islamabad. Google Scholar
  45. Inal A, Pilbeam DJ, Gunes A (2009) Silicon increases tolerance to boron toxicity and reduces oxidative damage in barley. J Plant Nutr 32:112–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johaning GL, O’Dell BL (1989) Effect of zinc deficiency and food destruction on erythrocyte membrane zinc, phospholipid and protein content. J Nutr 199:1654–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones DL, Darrah PR (1994) Role of root derived organic acids in the mobilization of nutrients from the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 166:247–257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Joseph MH, Dhargave TS, Deshpande CP, Srivastava AK (2015) Microbial solubilisation of phosphate: Pseudomonas versus Trichoderma. Annu Plant Soil Res 17:227–232Google Scholar
  49. Kabata-Pendias A (2000) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Katyal JC, Sharma BD (1991) DTPA extractable and total Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe in Indian soils. Geoderma 49:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khalid A, Arshad M, Shaharoona B, Mahmood T (2009) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and sustainable agriculture. In: Khan MS, Zaidi A, Musarat J (eds) Microbial strategies for crop improvement. Springer, Berlin, pp 133–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khande R, Sushil KS, Ramesh A, Mahaveer PS (2017) Zinc solubilizing Bacillus strains that modulate growth, yield and zinc biofortification of soybean and wheat. Rhizosphere 4:126–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiekens L (1995) Zinc in heavy metals. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Soils. Blackie, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Kloepper JW, Okon Y (1994) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (other systems). In: Okon Y (ed) Azospirillum/plant associations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 111–118Google Scholar
  55. Knight CTG, Kinrade SD (2001) A primer on the aqueous chemistry of silicon. In: Datnoff LE, Snyder GH, Korndörfer GH (eds) Silicon in agriculture, Studies in plant science, vol 8. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 57–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kovda VA (1973) Irrigation, drainage and salinity – an international source book. FAO, UNESCO, Rome, pp 77–79Google Scholar
  57. Kumar R, Bohra JS (2014) Effect of NPKS and Zn application on growth, yield, economics and quality of baby corn. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60:1193–1206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar R, Meena VS (2016) Towards the sustainable management of problematic soils in Northeast India. In: Bisht J, Meena V, Mishra P, Pattanayak A (eds) Conservation agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 339–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kumar R, Bohra JS, Kumawat N, Singh AK (2015a) Fodder yield, nutrient uptake and quality of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by NPKS and Zn fertilization. Res Crops 16:243–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kumar R, Bohra JS, Singh AK, Kumawat N (2015b) Productivity, profitability and nutrient-use efficiency of baby corn (Zea mays) as influenced of varying fertility levels. Indian J Agron 60:285–290Google Scholar
  61. Kumar R, Patra MK, Thirugnanavel A, Chatterjee D, Deka BC (2015c) Towards the natural resource management for resilient shifting cultivation system in Eastern Himalayas. In: Bisht J, Meena V, Mishra P, Pattanayak A (eds) Conservation agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 409–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kumar A, Sen A, Kumar R (2016a) Micronutrient fortification in crop to enhance growth, yield and quality of aromatic rice. J Environ Biol 37:973–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kumar A, Sen A, Kumar R, Upadhyay PK (2016b) Effect of zinc, iron and manganese levels on growth attributes and grain yield of rice. Ecol Environ Conserv 22:729–734Google Scholar
  64. Kumar R, Bohra JS, Kumawat N, Kumar A, Kumari A, Singh AK (2016c) Root growth, productivity and profitability of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by nutrition levels under irrigated ecosystem. Res Crops 17:41–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kumar R, Kumawat N, Kumar S, Singh AK, Bohra JS (2017) Effect of NPKS and Zn fertilization on growth, yield and quality of baby corn: a review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 6:1392–1428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kumar R, Bohra JS, Kumawat N, Upadhyay PK, Singh AK (2018) Effect of balanced fertilization on production, quality, energy use efficiency and soil health of baby corn (Zea mays). Indian J Agric Sci 88:28–34Google Scholar
  67. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R, Kumari A, Kumar P (2012) Response of intercropping and integrated nutrition on production potential and profitability on rainfed pigeonpea. J Agric Sci 4(7):154–162Google Scholar
  68. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R (2013a) Effect of integrated nutrient management on the performance of sole and intercropped pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under rainfed conditions. Indian J Agron 58(3):309–315Google Scholar
  69. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R (2013b) Productivity, economics and water use efficiency of rainfed pigeonpea + black gram intercropping as influenced by integrated nutrient management. Indian J Soil Conserv 41(2):170–176Google Scholar
  70. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R, Yadav TP (2015) Effect of integrated nutrient management on productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of rainfed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and blackgram (Vigna mungo) intercropping system. Indian J Agric Sci 85(2):171–176Google Scholar
  71. Kumawat N, Kumar R, Kumar S, Meena VS (2017) Nutrient solubilizing microbes (NSMs): its role in sustainable crop production. In: Meena VS, Mishra P, Bisht J, Pattanayak A (eds) Agriculturally important microbes for sustainable agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 25–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Laruelle GG, Roubeix V, Sferratore A, Brodherr B, Ciuffa D, Conley DJ, Dürr HH, Garnier J, Lancelot C, Le Thi PQ, Meunier JD, Meybeck M, Michalopoulos P, Moriceau B, Ní Longphuirt S, Loucaides S, Papush L, Presti M, Ragueneau O, Regnier P, Saccone L, Slomp CP, Spiteri C, Van Cappellen P (2009) Anthropogenic perturbations of the silicon cycle at the global scale: key role of the land–ocean transition. Global Biogeochem Cycles 23:GB4031. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li QF, Ma CC, Shang QL (2007) Effects of silicon on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes of maize under drought stress. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 18:531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Liang S, Stroeve J, Box JE (2005) Mapping daily snow/ice shortwave broadband albedo from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): the improved direct retrieval algorithm and validation with Greenland in situ measurement. J Geophys Res 110:D10109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu YG, Christie P (2007) Mechanisms of silicon-mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environ Pollut 147:422–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical equilibria in soil. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002) Soil, fertiliser, and plant silicon research in Japan. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma JF, Yamaji N, Mitani N, Tamai K, Konishi S, Fujiwara T, Katsuhara M, Yano M (2007) An efflux transporter of silicon in rice. Nature 448:209–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maleva M, Borisova G, Koshcheeva O, Sinenko O (2017) Biofertilizer based on silicate solubilizing bacteria improves photosynthetic function of Brassica juncea. AGROFOR Int J 2:13–19Google Scholar
  81. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  82. Mathew G, Huh MY, Rhee JM, Lee MH, Nah C (2004) Improvement of properties of silica-filled styrene-butadiene rubber composites through plasma surface modification of silica. Polym Adv Technol 15:400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Matichencov VV, Bocharnikova EA (2001) The relationship between silicon and soil physical and chemical properties. In: Datnoff LE, Snyder GH, Korndörfer GH (eds) Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Matichenkov VV, Calvert DV (2002) Silicon as a beneficial element for sugarcane. J Am Soc Sugarcane Technol 22:21–30Google Scholar
  85. Maze P (1915) Détermination des élémentsminé rauxraresné cessairesau développement du maïs. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de L’académie des Sciences 60:211–214Google Scholar
  86. Meena VD, Dotaniya ML, Coumar V (2014a) A case for silicon fertilization to improve crop yields in tropical soils. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci 84:505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Bahadur I (2014b) Potassium solubilization by bacterial strain in waste mica. Bangladesh J Bot 43:235–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP (2014c) Does a rhizospheric microorganism enhance K+ availability in agricultural soils? Microbiol Res 169:337–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mitani N, Ma JF (2005) Uptake system of silicon in different plant species. J Exp Bot 56:1255–1261PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Monger HC, Kelly EF (2002) Silica minerals. In: Soil mineralogy with environmental applications. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 611–636Google Scholar
  91. Muralikannan N, Anthoniraj S (1998) Occurrence of silicate solubilizing bacteria in rice ecosystem. Madras Agric J 85:47–50Google Scholar
  92. Nanayakkara UN, Uddin W, Datnoff LE (2008) Application of silicon sources increases silicon accumulation in perennial ryegrass turf on two soil types. Plant Soil 303:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Narayanaswamy C, Prakash NB (2009) Calibration and categorization of plant available silicon in rice soils of South India. J Plant Nutr 32:1237–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nene YL (1966) Symptoms, cause and control of khaira disease of paddy. Bull Indian Phytopathol Soc 3:97–191Google Scholar
  95. Nguyen C, Yan W, Le Tacon F, Lapyire F (1992) Genetic variability of phosphate solubilizing activity by monocaryotic and dicaryotic mycelia of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor (Maire) P.D. Orton. Plant Soil 143:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Parisi B, Vallee BL (1969) Metal enzyme complexes activated by zinc. J Biol Chem 179:803–807Google Scholar
  97. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42:207–220. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Peck AW, McDonald GK (2010) Adequate zinc nutrition alleviates the adverse effects of heat stress in bread wheat. Plant Soil 337:355–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pedda SK, Peera G, Balasubramaniam P, Mahendran PP (2016) Effect of silicate solubilizing bacteria and fly ash on silicon uptake and yield of rice under lowland ecosystem. J Appl Nat Sci 8:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Phonde DB, Banerjee K (2015) Plant available silicon status and its relationship with soil properties, leaf silicon and cane yield. In: Poster presented in National seminar on Frontiers in Agrochemicals and Pest management Shivaji University Kolhapuron Jan 29–30, 2015Google Scholar
  101. Potarzycki J, Grzebisz W (2009) Effect of zinc foliar application on grain yield of maize and its yielding components. Plant Soil Environ 55:519–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Prasad R (2010) Zinc biofortification of food grains in relation to food security and alleviation of zinc malnutrition. Curr Sci 98:1300–1304Google Scholar
  103. Rains B (1976) Periglacial processes and environments, by AL Washburn. N Z Geogr 32:203–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rajkumar M, Freitas H (2008) Effects of inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria on Ni uptake by Indian mustard. Bioresour Technol 99:3491–3498PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Raven JA (1983) The transport and function of silicon in plants. Biol Rev 58:179–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reed ST, Martens DC (1996) Copper and zinc. In: Sparks DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3: Chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  107. Richmond KE, Sussman M (2003) Got silicon? The non-essential beneficial plant nutrient. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:268–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Rodriguez H, Fraga R (2004) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 17:319–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rodrigues F, Benhamou N, Datnoff LE, Jones JB, Bélanger RR (2003) Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of silicon-mediated rice blast resistance. Phytopathology 93:535–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rodrigues FA, Mcnally DJ, Datnoff LE, Jones JB, Labbé C, Benhamou N (2004) Silicon enhances the accumulation of diterpenoid phytoalexins in rice: a potential mechanism for blast resistance. Phytopathology 94:177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rodrigues FA, Jurick WM, Datnoff LE, Jones JB, Rollins JA (2005) Silicon influences cytological and molecular events in compatible and incompatible rice-Magnaporthe grisea interactions. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 66:144–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosas SB, Avanzini G, Carlier E, Pasluosta C, Pastor N, Rovera M (2009) Root colonization and growth promotion of wheat and maize by Pseudomonas aurantiaca SR1. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1802–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Saeed M, Fox RL (1977) Relation between suspension pH and zinc solubility in acid and calcareous soils. Soil Sci 124:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Saravanan VS, Subramoniam SR, Raj SA (2003) Assessing in vitro solubilization of different zinc solubilizing bacterial (ZBS) strains. Braz J Microbiol 34:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Saravanan VS, Subramoniam SR, Raj SA (2004) Assessing in vitro solubilization potential of different zinc solubilizing bacterial (ZSB) isolates. Braz J Microbiol 35:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Saravanan VS, Kalaiarasan P, Madhaiyan M, Thangaraju M (2007) Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and the detrimental action of zinc ion (Zn2+) and zinc chelates on root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Lett Appl Microbiol 44:235–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Saravanan VS, Kumar MR, Sa TM (2011) Microbial zinc solubilization and their role on plants. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: plant nutrient management. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sauerbeck D (1982) Which heavy metal concentration in plants should not be exceeded in order to avoid detrimental effects on their growth. Landw Forsch Sonderh 39:108–129Google Scholar
  119. Savant NK, Datnoff LE, Snyder GH (1997) Depletion of plant-available silicon in soils: a possible cause of declining rice yields. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 28:1145–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sbartai H, Djebar M, Rouabhi R, Sbartai I, Berrebbah H (2011) Antioxidative response in tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum L. roots and leaves to zinc. Am Eurasian J Toxicol Sci 3:41–46Google Scholar
  121. Schulthess CP, Tokunaga S (1996) Metal and pH effects on adsorption of poly (vinyl alcohol) by silicon oxide. Soil Sci Soc Am J 60:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shaikh S, Saraf M (2017) Biofortification of Triticum aestivum through the inoculation of zinc solubilizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in field experiment. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 9:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shakeel M, Rais A, Hassan MN, Hafeez FY (2015) Root associated Bacillus sp. improves growth, yield and zinc translocation for Basmati rice (Oryza sativa) varieties. Front Microbiol 6:1286PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Singh MV (2011) Assessing extent of zinc deficiency for soil factors affecting nutritional scarcity in humans and animals. Indian J Fertil 7:36–43Google Scholar
  125. Sommer AL (1926) Studies concerning the essential nature of aluminum and silicon for plant growth. Univ Calif Publ Agric Sci 5:57–81Google Scholar
  126. Sommer C, Schomacher M, Berger C, Kuhnert K, Muller HD, Schwab S (2006) Neuroprotective cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A prevents downregulation of excitotoxic NMDA receptors in the ischemic penumbra. Acta Neuropathol 112:277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Srivastava PC, Gupta UC (1996) Trace elements in crop production. Oxford and IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  128. Sunithakumari K, Padma Devi SN, Vasandha S (2016) Zinc solubilizing bacterial isolates from the agricultural fields of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Curr Sci 110:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Takahashi E, Ma JF, Miyake Y (1990) The possibility of silicon as essential element for higher plants. Commun Agric Food Chem 2:99–122Google Scholar
  130. Tavallali V, Rahemi M, Eshghi S, K holdebarin B, Ramezanian A (2010) Zinc alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. ‘Badami’) seedlings. Turk J Agric For 34:349–359Google Scholar
  131. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaten JD (1984) Zinc in soil fertility and fertilizers, 4th edn. Macmillan, New York, pp 382–391Google Scholar
  132. Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD, Havlin JL (2009) Soil fertility and fertilizer-an introduction to nutrient management, 7th edn. Prentice Hall of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  133. Tréguer P, Nelson DM, Van Bennekom AJ, DeMaster DJ, Leynaert A, Quéguiner B (1995) The silica balance in the world ocean: a re-estimate. Science 268:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tripathi DK, Singh S, Singh S, Mishra S, Chauhan DK, Dubey NK (2015) Micronutrients and their diverse role in agricultural crops: advances and future prospective. Acta Physiol Plant 37:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tubana BT, Heckman JR (2015) Silicon in soils and plants. In: Rodrigues FA, Datnoff LE (eds) Silicon and plant disease. Springer, Cham, pp 7–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vaid SK, Kumar B, Sharma A, Shukla AK, Srivastava PC (2014) Effect of zinc solubilizing bacteria on growth promotion and zinc nutrition of rice. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 14:889–910Google Scholar
  137. Van Bockhaven J, Spichal L, Novak O, Strand M, Asano T, Kikuchi S, Hofte M, De Vleesschauwer D (2014) Silicon induces resistance to brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by preventing the pathogen from hijacking the rice ethylene pathway. New Phytol 206:761–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wakatsuki T (1995) Metal oxidoreduction by microbial cells. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 14:169–177Google Scholar
  139. Wallace A (1993) Participation of silicon in cation–anion balance as a possible mechanism for aluminum and iron tolerance in some Gramineae. J Plant Nutr 16:547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wedepohl KH (1995) The composition of the continental crust. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:1217–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Welch RM, Graham RD (2004) Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective. J Exp Bot 55:353–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Weller DM, Thomashow LS (1994) Current challenges in introducing beneficial microorganisms into the rhizosphere. In: O’Gara F, Dowling DN, Boesten B (eds) Molecular ecology of rhizosphere microorganisms: biotechnology and the release of GMOs. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  143. Whiting SN, De Souza M, Terry N (2001) Rhizosphere bacteria mobilize Zn for hyper accumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens. Environ Sci Technol 35:3144–3150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Yeo AR, Flowers SA, Rao G, Welfare K, Senanayake N, Flowers TJ (1999) Silicon reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions and this is accounted for by a reduction in the transpirational by pass flow. Plant Cell Environ 22:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Narendra Kumawat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rakesh Kumar
    • 3
  • U. R. Khandkar
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. K. Yadav
    • 2
    • 4
  • Kirti Saurabh
    • 3
  • J. S. Mishra
    • 3
  • M. L. Dotaniya
    • 5
  • Hansraj Hans
    • 3
  1. 1.RVSKVVGwaliorIndia
  2. 2.College of AgricultureIndoreIndia
  3. 3.Division of Crop ResearchICAR-RCERPatnaIndia
  4. 4.Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV)AlirajpurIndia
  5. 5.ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard ResearchBharatpurIndia

Personalised recommendations