Skip to main content

Dealing with a Proactive Japan: Reconsidering Japan’s Regional Role and Its Value for New Zealand’s Foreign Policy

Part of the The World of Small States book series (WSS,volume 6)

Abstract

New Zealand’s geopolitical environment has become more competitive and unpredictable. New Zealand increasingly shares region-wide anxieties about economic dependence on China, China’s challenge to the regional security order, and the United States’ commitment to underwriting a stable regional economic and security order. Furthermore, US-China competition is becoming more confrontational, making it even harder for New Zealand to calibrate its orientation towards the two global great powers. The New Zealand government has, however, responded proactively by enhancing existing relations and forging new relationships with nations struggling with the same dilemma. One of the most influential of these nations is Japan. As outlined in the first half of this chapter, Japan became an important partner for New Zealand after a tentative period of post-World War II engagement. However, the relationship became increasingly characterized by benign neglect from the late-1990s up until the revitalization of the relationship in 2013 when both governments agreed on an upgraded ‘strategic cooperative partnership’. The second half of this chapter explores the value for New Zealand of newly-enhanced forms of bilateral cooperation with Japan. The chapter concludes by arguing that enhanced strategic cooperation with a more regionally proactive Japan will also enable New Zealand to diversify its economic and political relations with other nations in the Indo-Asia-Pacific.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-18803-0_12
  • Chapter length: 19 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-18803-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    Trotter (1990).

  2. 2.

    McKinnon (1999), p. 223; Hamanaka (2009), p. 42.

  3. 3.

    Brown (1999a), p. 36; Peren (1999), pp. 186–187; McKinnon (1999), p. 218.

  4. 4.

    Peren (1999), p. 187.

  5. 5.

    Trotter (1999), p. 209.

  6. 6.

    McGibbon (1999), p. 140; Peren (1999), p. 185.

  7. 7.

    Peren (1999), pp. 196–197; Brown (1999b), p. 159.

  8. 8.

    Peren (1999), p. 190; Brown (1999b), pp. 157, 180–183.

  9. 9.

    Peren (1999), p. 194; “Participation,” Education Counts, last modified May 2018, https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/statistics/tertiary-education/participation.

  10. 10.

    Peren (1999), pp. 194–202.

  11. 11.

    “Sister City and Friendly City Links,” New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, accessed 5 February 2019, https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/countries-and-regions/north-asia/japan/new-zealand-embassy/sister-city-and-friendly-city-links/.

  12. 12.

    Mackay (2007), pp. 271–272; “Southern Bluefin Tuna Catch Quota Up 30% for Japan,” Jiji Press, 13 October 2017.

  13. 13.

    Rolland (2014), pp. 496–502. See also Wong (2007), pp. 287–289.

  14. 14.

    Rolland (2014), pp. 496–502.

  15. 15.

    Rachel Mealey, “Japan’s Whaling Fleet Returns after Killing 333 Minke Whales in Southern Ocean,” ABC News, 31 March 2017, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-03-31/japan-whaling-fleet-kills-333-minke-whales-southern-ocean-hunt/8405690.

  16. 16.

    Mari Yamiguchi, “Japan to resume commercial whaling, but not in Antarctic,” Associated Press, 26 December 2018, https://www.apnews.com/92934e9d2e824487ad2da5f38440a1e8.

  17. 17.

    McKinnon (1999), p. 216.

  18. 18.

    McKinnon (1999), p. 219; Hamanaka (2009), p. 47.

  19. 19.

    Peren (1999), p. 187; McKinnon (1999), p. 222.

  20. 20.

    New Zealand diplomat T.C. Larkin in 1969, in McKinnon (1999), p. 221.

  21. 21.

    Tow (1978), pp. 1221–1234; Edward A. Olsen, “Adding a J to ANZUS,” The New York Times, 13 May 1981.

  22. 22.

    McKinnon (1999), p. 223.

  23. 23.

    Terada (2006), pp. 536–551.

  24. 24.

    Rolls (2007).

  25. 25.

    Rolls (2007), p. 221; Audrey Young, “PM to Visit North Asia Hoping for More FTAs,” New Zealand Herald, 20 April 2008, http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10505283.

  26. 26.

    “Goods and Services Trade by Country: Year Ended June 2018 – Corrected,” Statistics New Zealand, last modified 4 September 2018, https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/goods-and-services-trade-by-country-year-ended-june-2018.

  27. 27.

    “Key Tourism Statistics,” Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, last modified 10 August 2018, https://www.mbie.govt.nz/info-services/sectors-industries/tourism/documents-image-library/KeyTourismStatistics.pdf.

  28. 28.

    Ayson (2016), pp. 496–503.

  29. 29.

    Satake (2016), pp. 24–36; Ayson (2016), p. 505.

  30. 30.

    Rebecca Townsend, “Q&A with Toshihiro Nakayama: ‘NZ and Japan See a Different China,’” Asia New Zealand Foundation, last modified 16 May 2017, http://www.asianz.org.nz/bulletin/new-zealand-and-japan-see-a-different-china.

  31. 31.

    The Government of New Zealand and the Government of Japan, “Joint Statement on a Strategic Cooperative Partnership between Japan and New Zealand: Shared Values and Vision,” 9 June 2013, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/kaidan/files/nz130610_statement3.pdf.

  32. 32.

    Peren (1999), pp. 186–188.

  33. 33.

    Kamiya (1999), p. 232.

  34. 34.

    Email interview with senior New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade official.

  35. 35.

    Wevers (1988) and Ministry of Defence (2010).

  36. 36.

    The Government of New Zealand and the Government of Japan, “Japan-New Zealand Summit Meeting Joint Press Release on Enhancing Japan-New Zealand Cooperation,” 7 July 2014, http://www.mofa.go.jp/a_o/ocn/page3e_000194.html.

  37. 37.

    Ministry of Defence (2016), p. 34; Ministry of Defence (2018), p. 14.

  38. 38.

    Email interview with senior New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade official.

  39. 39.

    New Zealand Defence Force, “NZDF Hunting Submarines in Joint Exercise in Japan,” media release, 13 June 2017, http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/news/media-releases/2017/20170615-nzdf-hunting-submarines-in-joint-exercise-in-japan.htm.

  40. 40.

    Ministry of Defence (2018), p. 8.

  41. 41.

    “NZDF Rescues Hundreds from Kaikoura,” Scoop, 16 November 2016, http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/PO1611/S00219/nzdf-rescues-hundreds-from-kaikoura.htm.

  42. 42.

    David Capie, “Is New Zealand Inching Towards a Tougher Position on The South China Sea?,” Incline, 5 August 2015, http://www.incline.org.nz/home/is-new-zealand-inching-towards-a-tougher-position-on-the-south-china-sea.

  43. 43.

    “Who Is Taking Sides After the South China Sea Ruling?,” Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, last modified 15 August 2016, https://amti.csis.org/sides-in-south-china-sea.

  44. 44.

    Euan Graham, “A Silver Fern Lining to Fitzgerald Collision,” The Interpreter, 29 June 2017, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/silver-fern-lining-fitzgerald-collision; New Zealand Defence Force, “US and New Zealand Navies Teaming Up in the Pacific,” media release, 6 July 2017, http://www.nzdf.mil.nz/news/media-releases/2017/20170710-us-and-new-zealand-navies-teaming-up-in-the-pacific.htm.

  45. 45.

    Vernon Small, “NZ Reaction to South China Sea Ruling Treads Gently over China’s Loss,” Stuff, 14 July 2016, http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/opinion/82052423/nz-reaction-to-south-china-sea-ruling-treads-gently-over-chinas-loss; Ankit Panda, “China Pushes Back on Japan, New Zealand Statement on South China Sea,” The Diplomat, 21 May 2017, https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/china-pushes-back-on-japan-new-zealand-statement-on-south-china-sea; Reuters, “China Berates NZ over South China Sea Stance,” Stuff, 11 October 2016, http://www.stuff.co.nz/world/asia/85234847/china-berates-nz-over-south-china-sea-stance.

  46. 46.

    Interview with senior New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade official.

  47. 47.

    John Garnaut, “Australia-Japan Military Ties are a ‘Quasi-Alliance’, Say Officials,” Sydney Morning Herald, 26 October 2014, http://www.smh.com.au/national/australiajapan-military-ties-are-a-quasialliance-say-officials-20141026-11c4bi.html.

  48. 48.

    Interview with senior New Zealand Ministry of Defence official.

  49. 49.

    Interview with senior New Zealand Ministry of Defence official.

  50. 50.

    Interview with Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment official.

  51. 51.

    Oishi (2017), p. 4.

  52. 52.

    Mizuno (2013), p. 12.

  53. 53.

    Prebble and Prebble (2012); Oishi (2017), pp. 1–5.

  54. 54.

    Oishi (2017), p. 5; “Geothermal: The Opportunity,” New Zealand Trade and Enterprise, last modified March 2013, https://www.newzealandtrade-enterprise.govt.nz/media/344118/nzs-geothermal-opportunity.pdf; “Demand for NZ Company’s Expertise in Geothermal Energy,” Scoop, 3 August 2015, http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/BU1508/S00017/demand-for-nz-companys-expertise-in-geothermal-energy.htm.

  55. 55.

    “New Zealand Trade, Investment, and Migration by Country – Fact Sheets,” Statistics New Zealand, 20 September 2017, http://archive.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/industry_sectors/imports_and_exports/trade-investment-migration-factsheets.aspx.

  56. 56.

    KPMG (2015), pp. 12–13; Hamilton-Hart et al. (2017), pp. 11–12.

  57. 57.

    Hamilton-Hart et al. (2017), p. 19.

  58. 58.

    Ellen Read, “Japanese Buy CHH Pulp, Paper Business,” Stuff, 28 April 2014, http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/9981357/Japanese-buy-CHH-pulp-paper-business.

  59. 59.

    Simon Draper, “Why are We Afraid of Asian Investment?,” Stuff, 5 June 2017, http://www.stuff.co.nz/business/opinion-analysis/93286946/simon-draper-why-are-we-afraid-of-asian-investment.

  60. 60.

    Terada (1998), pp. 337–363.

  61. 61.

    “Japan proposes a rescue mission for Trans-Pacific trade.” Financial Times, 3 May 2017, https://www.ft.com/content/53305c38-3006-11e7-9555-23ef563ecf9a.

  62. 62.

    Keiko Nannichi, “Ishihara TPP tantō-shō, NZ bōeki-shō to kaidan e 8-nichi de chōsei,” Asahi Shimbun, 6 February 2017, http://www.asahi.com/sp/articles/ASK264SPTK26ULFA00Z.html.

  63. 63.

    “Shushō, ittai ichiro ni kyōryoku shisei kōsei-sa jōken nihon kigyō no sankaku, samatagezu,” Nikkei Shimbun, 5 June 2017, http://mw.nikkei.com/sp/#!/article/DGXLASFS05H5I_V00C17A6000000.

  64. 64.

    Keith Johnson, “Japan’s Own Belt and Road,” Foreign Policy, 9 February 2018, http://foreignpolicy.com/2018/02/09/japan-takes-the-lead-in-countering-chinas-belt-and-road/.

  65. 65.

    World Bank Statistics can be accessed here: “Japan Exports By Country 2016,” World Bank, accessed 6 February 2019, https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/JPN/Year/2016/TradeFlow/Export/Partner/by-country.

  66. 66.

    Wallace (2018), pp. 883–904.

  67. 67.

    The Government of New Zealand and the Government of Japan, “Japan-New Zealand Foreign Ministers’ Meeting Joint Press Release on Cooperation in the Pacific,” 18 May 2018, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000365382.pdf.

  68. 68.

    Reuben Steff, “New Zealand’s Pacific Reset: Strategic Anxieties about Rising China,” The Conversation, 1 June 2018, http://theconversation.com/new-zealands-pacific-reset-strategic-anxieties-about-rising-china-97174; Anna Powles and Michael Powles, “New Zealand’s Pacific Sea Change,” The Interpreter, 7 March 2018, https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/new-zealand-s-pacific-sea-change.

  69. 69.

    The Government of New Zealand and the Government of Japan, “New Zealand-Japan Joint Press Release: Cooperation on the Pacific Climate Change Centre,” 5 September 2018, https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/new-zealand-cooperate-japan-pacific-climate-change-centre.

  70. 70.

    “Japan and NZ Join Forces to Help Pacific,” Radio New Zealand, 15 October 2018, https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/368699/japan-and-nz-join-forces-to-help-pacific.

  71. 71.

    Kyodo News, “Japan, U.S., Australia, NZ Ink Electricity Project in PNG,” Mainichi Shimbun, 18 November 2018, https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20181118/p2g/00m/0in/029000c.

  72. 72.

    Shinzō Abe, “Asia’s Democratic Security Diamond,” Project Syndicate, 27 December 2012, https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/a-strategic-alliance-for-japan-and-india-by-shinzo-abe.

  73. 73.

    Gale and Shearer (2018).

  74. 74.

    Sam Sachdeva, “Trump’s Indo-Pacific Push Risks Quad Strain for NZ,” Newsroom, 10 November 2017, https://pro.newsroom.co.nz/articles/2224-trump-s-indo-pacific-push-risks-quad-strain-for-nz.

  75. 75.

    Dinakar Peri, “New Zealand Defence Chief Raises India’s Role in IOR,” The Hindu, 19 February 2018, http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/new-zealand-defence-chief-raises-indias-role-in-ior/article22800681.ece.

  76. 76.

    Steff, “New Zealand’s Pacific Reset”; Ministry of Defence (2018), p. 6.

  77. 77.

    Ministry of Defence (2018), p. 26.

References

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Corey Wallace .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2019 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Wallace, C. (2019). Dealing with a Proactive Japan: Reconsidering Japan’s Regional Role and Its Value for New Zealand’s Foreign Policy. In: Brady, AM. (eds) Small States and the Changing Global Order. The World of Small States, vol 6. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-18803-0_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-18803-0_12

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-18802-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-18803-0

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)