Advertisement

Cognitive and Emotional Development of Young People and the Development of Resilience

  • Laurence BaldwinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

We stress throughout this book the need to be aware of the developmental stage of children and young people as a way of informing how we interact with them. This chapter, by Laurence Baldwin, serves as a brief introduction to the complex theories of child and adolescent development and will highlight the key points for informing nursing practice. It is necessarily brief, but will give pointers to more in-depth texts and sources of information for follow-up study, and tries to provide a steer for key concepts in a potentially difficult area. In order to do this we need to look at classic theories of both physical and cognitive development, and also some other concepts that inform certain areas of engaging young people. Identity formation, for example, is crucial stage of adolescent development which impacts on mental health, so it merits a section of its own, alongside some of the newer thinking about how resilience develops and is potentially very different and individualized. We will also touch on the recent understandings of how early trauma impacts on development and mental health, particularly the concept of ‘Adverse Childhood Events’ (ACEs).

References

  1. Bargiela S, Steward R, Mandy W (2016) The experiences of late diagnosed women with autism spectrum conditions: an investigation of the female autism phenotype. J Autism Dev Disord 46:3281–3294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellman M, Byrne O, Sege R (2013) BMJ clinical review: developmental assessment of children. Br Med J 346:e8687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black JB, Woodworth M, Tremblay M, Carpenter T (2012) A review of trauma-informed treatment for adolescents. Can Psychol 53(3):192–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boullier M, Blair M (2018) Adverse childhood experiences. Paediatr Child Health 28:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bowlby J (1968) Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowlby J (1973) Attachment and loss: Vol. 2 separation anxiety and anger. Penguin Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowlby J (1980) Attachment and loss: Vol. 3 loss, sadness and depression. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowlby J (1990) A secure base: parent-child attachment and human development. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner U (1979) The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Callaghan JEM, Alexander JH, Sixsmith J, Fellin LC (2018) Beyond ‘witnessing’: children’s experiences of coercive control in domestic violence and abuse. J Interpers Violence 33(10):1551–1581Google Scholar
  11. Fellitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenburg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS (1998) Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adulthood: the adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. Am J Prev Med 14(4):245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gianfrancesco O, Bubb VJ, Quinn JP (2019) Transforming the “E” in “G x E”: trauma-informed approaches and psychological therapy interventions in psychosis. Front Psych 10:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayes N, O’Toole L, Halpenny AM (2017) Introducing Bronfenbrenner: (introducing early years thinkers series). Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hunt KA, Slack KS, Berger LM (2017) Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood. Child Abuse Negl 67:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Keenan T, Evans S, Crowley K (2016) An introduction to child development (sage foundations of psychology series). Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. McKenzie R, Dallos R (2017) Autism and attachment difficulties: overlap of symptoms, implications and innovative solutions. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 22(4):632–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mercer J (2018) Child development: concepts and theories. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Nash M (2013) Diagnostic overshadowing: a potential barrier to physical healthcare for mental health service users. Ment Health Pract 17(4):22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ozonoff S, Young GS, Brian J, Charman T, Shephard E, Solish A, Zweigenbaum L (2018) Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder after age 5 in children evaluated longitudinally since infancy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 57(11):849–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Piaget J (1936) Origins of intelligence in the child. Routledge and Keegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Powell C, Appleton JV (2012) Children and young people’s missed healthcare appointments: reconceptualising ‘did not attend’ to ‘was not brought’—a review of the evidence for practice. J Res Nurs 17(2):181–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Public Health Wales (2015) Welsh adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study: adverse childhood experiences and their effect on health-harming behaviours in the welsh adult population. PHW, CardiffGoogle Scholar
  23. Rhagavan R, Bernard S, McCarthy J (2011) Mental health needs of children and Young people with learning disabilities. Pavilion Publishing, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  24. Schlein S (2016) The clinical Erik Erikson. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schofield G, Beek M (2018) Attachment handbook for fostering and adoption, 2nd edn. CoramBAAF, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Vygotsky LS (1978) Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Werner E, Smith RS (1982) Vulnerable but invincible: a longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Zolkoski SM, Bullock LM (2012) Resilience in children and youth: a review. Child Youth Serv Rev 34(12):2295–2303CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Useful Websites

  1. MindEd E-learning resource (includes developmental resources). https://www.minded.org.uk/
  2. US Centre for Disease Control—Child Development section. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/index.html
  3. UK Mumsnet pages on Child Development (up to age 5). https://www.mumsnet.com/babies/child-development
  4. World Health Organization Child Development Pages. https://www.who.int/topics/early-child-development/en/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Nursing, Midwifery and HealthCoventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations