Soil Processes

Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


The micromorphological diagnosis, typification, and assessment of main soil-forming processes have been conducted for soils of Georgia: humification, argillization, gleization, podzolization, lessivage, ferrugination, and carbonization. Morphotypes of soil organic matter were determined in main soils—five groups were identified: raw, raw-moder or moder-raw, moder, moder-mull or mull-moder, mull. The process of argillization is diagnosed as in situ weathering and depending on the clayzation intensity, three main grades were identified: intense, medium, and weak. Lessivage is diagnosed by the presence of the optically oriented clay cutans in transit pores and is visible as clay cutans, silty cutans, and complex cutans in the form of films on the walls of the pores and mineral grains. The diagnostic sign of gleization is the contrast in the distribution of ferrum hydroxides. It was grouped according to the degree of intensity as strong, medium, and weak. Ferrugination processes take place mostly in humid zone. Two main forms are distinguished: concretions and ferruginated plasma. The gradation of ferrugination was done by the intensity of process. Carbonization is diagnosed according to genetic-morphological groups of carbonates and the sizes of calcite crystals. It is divided into concretions and carbonized plasma; with the intensity of strong, average, and weakly calcareous.


Argillization Podzolization Lessivage Gleization Ferrugination Carbonization 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Exact & Natural Sciences, Department of Soil GeographyIvane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia

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