Soil-Forming Factors

Part of the World Soils Book Series book series (WSBS)


The chapter discusses all major natural factors, influenced soil formation, such as parent material, climate, relief, organisms, and time. Due to considerable influence of humans on soils, it is also considered as a specific factor of soil formation. Considering the significant role of each of these factors, their descriptions for Georgia are given. In particular, geological structure, orographic indicators, climatic features, including soil climate, specificity of vegetation cover and biodiversity, landscape diversity, importance of time factor and relict parameters in soils of Georgia, etc. are described in detail.


Soil formation Parent material Relief Climate Living organisms Time factor 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Exact & Natural Sciences, Department of Soil GeographyIvane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia

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