Upper Respiratory Tract Infection and Wheezing

  • Javad GhaffariEmail author

Practical Points

  • Two clinical types of asthma have been conventionally described: transient non-atopic wheezing which is more common in early childhood and persistent atopic wheezing with its onset in early childhood and high probability of persistence in late childhood or adulthood.

  • Pulmonary Index Score is a useful tool in assessing the severity of asthma attack.

  • Anticholinergics can be used as add-on therapy to short-acting beta-agonists (SABA) during asthma exacerbations.

  • A short course of oral or systemic corticosteroid should be considered if the patients is irresponsive to short-acting beta-agonist.


Peak expiratory flow Asthma Oral corticosteroids Short-acting beta agonist 


  1. 1.
    The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, USA, and World Health Organization. 1993. Accessed 2019.
  2. 2.
    Kliegman R, Behrman RE, Nelson WE. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyMazandaran University of Medical SciencesSariIran

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