Badges Are Back! - Fostering Self-assessment During Personalised Learning in Making and Digital Fabrication

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 946)


Badges have been used in education and leisure activities to accredit knowledge or learning for a long time. Digital badges in particular have been reported to become a gamification element fostering students’ engagement and motivation. In our work, we explore the use of digital badges during digital fabrication and making activities as a way to foster personalised learning paths within the eCraft2Learn learning ecosystem. In this paper, we describe the development of the badge system implemented in the eCraft2Learn digital platform. The system supports students’ self-evaluation and promotes a communicative process between students and teachers for badge allocation. Visual representations of the badge system are provided here alongside the underlying pedagogical justifications behind the system development.


Technology innovation Badges in education Digital fabrication and making 



The work presented here was carried out under the H2020 eCraft2Learn Project. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, grant agreement No. 731345.


  1. 1.
    Alimisis, D., Loukatos, D.: STEM education post-graduate students’ training in the eCraft2Learn ecosystem (2018).
  2. 2.
    Andrade, H., Valtcheva, A.: Promoting learning and achievement through self-assessment. Theory Pract. 48(1), 12–19 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrade, H., Cizek, G.J.: Students as the definitive source of formative assessment: academic self-assessment and the self-regulation of learning. In: Handbook of Formative Assessment, pp. 102–117. Routledge (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barata, G., Gama, S., Jorge, J., Goncalves, D.: Improving participation and learning with gamification. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on gameful design, research, and applications, pp. 10–17. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.: From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, pp. 9–15. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., Angelova, G.: Gamification in education: a systematic mapping study. J. Educ. Technol. Soc. 18(3), 75–88 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dominguez, A., Saenz-De-Navarrete, J., De-Marcos, L., Fernandez-Sanz, L., PageS, C., Martinez-HerraIz, J.J.: Gamifying learning experiences: practical implications and outcomes. Comput. Educ. 63, 380–392 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Gibson, D., Ostashewski, N., Flintoff, K., Grant, S., Knight, E.: Digital badges in education. Educ. Inf. Technol. 20(2), 403–410 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hakulinen, L., Auvinen, T.: The effect of gamification on students with different achievement goal orientations. In: 2014 International Conference on Teaching and Learning in Computing and Engineering (LaTiCE), pp. 9–16. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kahn, K., Suero Montero, C., Voigt, C.: STEAM learning in formal and informal settings via craft and maker projects. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children, pp. 728–733. ACM (2018)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McLoughlin, C., Lee, M.J.W.: Personalised and self regulated learning in the Web 2.0 era: international exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software. Australas. J. Educ. Technol. 26(1), 28–43 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McMillan, J.H., Hearn, J.: Student self-assessment: the key to stronger student motivation and higher achievement. Educ. Horiz. 87(1), 40–49 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miliband, D.: Choice and voice in personalised learning. In: Schooling for Tomorrow Personalising Education, Chapter 1, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panadero, E., Alonso-Tapia, J.: Self-assessment: theoretical and practical connotations, when it happens, how is it acquired and what to do to develop it in our students (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Panadero, E., Brown, G.T., Strijbos, J.W.: The future of student self-assessment: a review of known unknowns and potential directions. Educ. Psychol. Rev. 28(4), 803–830 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., Botella, J.: Effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning and self-efficacy: four meta-analyses. Educ. Res. Rev. 22, 74–98 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patrick, H.: Social self-regulation: exploring the relations between children’s social relationships, academic self-regulation, and school performance. Educ. Psychol. 32(4), 209–220 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Peirce, N., Conlan, O., Wade, V.: Adaptive educational games: providing non-invasive personalised learning experiences. In: 2008 Second IEEE International Conference on Digital Games and Intelligent Toys Based Education, pp. 28–35. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pirker, J., Riffnaller-Schiefer, M., Gütl, C.: Motivational active learning: engaging university students in computer science education. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Innovation & Technology in Computer Science Education, pp. 297–302. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Suero Montero, C., Voigt, C., Mäkitalo, K.: From digital fabrication to meaningful creations: pedagogical perspectives. Springer (to appear, 2019)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Toivonen, T., Jormanainen, I., Suero Montero, C., Alessandrini, A.: Innovative maker movement platform for K-12 education as a smart learning environment. In: Challenges and Solutions in Smart Learning, pp. 61–66. Springer, Singapore (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.School of Educational Sciences and PsychologyUniversity of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland
  3. 3.Department of Information EngineeringUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations