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Biogenic Elements as Cofactors in Enzymes and Their Amount in the Chia Seed

Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS,volume 76)


In this paper, concentrations of biogenic elements such as copper, zinc, iron and magnesium in the chia seed have been determined by ICP–MS. These transition metals are important because they have the ability to bind to biomolecules and produce complex compounds (coordinating compounds or complexes). Metals which bonded to enzymes have the role of cofactors and they participate in important biological processes such as enzyme catalysis or other significant biological processes. Copper is a necessary trace element. Copper is the cofactor of important enzymes such as cytochrome oxidases and respiratory chain enzymes. It is essential for proper iron metabolism, but residual salts are toxic. It is antifungal. Zinc is one of the most important biogenic trace elements. It is necessary for preserving and transmitting genetic information. Over 300 enzymes contain zinc. It enhances immunity. It was also determined the concentration of iron which is a necessary biogenic element and in the human organism is mainly found in hemoglobin. Iron also participates in the processes of detoxification and bacterial defense, but in higher doses is toxic. Magnesium also enters into the composition of certain enzymes or is their activator. In humans, its deficiency causes muscle spasms and acts as an anti-allergic. In normal levels, they are important for stabilization of the cellular structures, but in deficiency states may stimulate alternate pathways and cause diseases. Research has shown that chia seeds are extremely rich in magnesium, iron, zinc and copper and that chia seeds can certainly be one of the ways of entering the required elements through its consumption.


  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Black chia

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Correspondence to Amra Bratovcic .

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Bratovcic, A., Saric, E. (2020). Biogenic Elements as Cofactors in Enzymes and Their Amount in the Chia Seed. In: Karabegović, I. (eds) New Technologies, Development and Application II. NT 2019. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, vol 76. Springer, Cham.

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