Structure of the Hydrogenosome
Hydrogenosomes are very interesting organelles found in non-mitochondrial organisms. They display similarities and differences with mitochondria. Hydrogenosomes are spherical or slightly elongated organelles, although very elongated hydrogenosomes are also found. They measure between 200 and 1000 nm but under stress conditions can reach 2 μm. Hydrogenosomes divide in three different ways, like mitochondria: segmentation, partition, and the heart form. They may divide at any phase of the cell cycle. Nucleoid or electron-dense deposits are not considered part of the normal structure of the hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes are surrounded by two closely apposed membranes and present a granular matrix. Hydrogenosomes have one or multiple peripheral vesicles, which incorporate calcium. The peripheral vesicle can be isolated from the hydrogenosomal matrix and is considered a distinct hydrogenosomal compartment. Dysfunctional hydrogenosomes are removed by an autophagic process and further digested in lysosomes. Similarities and differences with mitochondria are presented.
This work was supported by CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), PRONEX (Programa de Núcleo de Excelência), and FAPERJ (Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro).
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