Advertisement

Education as Potentially Preventative of Violent Conflict

  • Clive HarberEmail author
Chapter
  • 130 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter begins by discussing the optimistic consensus that surrounds the potential role of schooling in peacebuilding in post-conflict societies, despite the enormous difficulties and challenges faced and despite the role of schooling in sometimes helping to foment violence in the first place. It cites international organisations, government development agencies and academics who express the view that education can be transformed (a commonly used word in the literature) and can play a positive role. The second section of the chapter looks at the importance of evidence, arguing that much of the literature on education and peace is prescriptive and aspirational in nature. This is why it therefore seemed important to carry out a wider study of the literature and evidence on the role of schooling in conflict-affected and post-conflict developing societies to examine whether there was a large amount of wishful thinking or whether schooling really could be transformed to make a significant contribution to peacebuilding.

References

  1. Aguilar, P., & Retamal, G. (1998). Rapid Educational Response in Complex Emergencies: A Discussion Document. Geneva: International Bureau of Education.Google Scholar
  2. Bajaj, M., & Hantzopoulos, M. (2016). Introduction: Theory, Research and Praxis of Peace Education. In M. Bajaj & M. Hantzopoulos (Eds.), Peace Education: International Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  3. Barakat, S., Connolly, D., Hardman, F., & Sundaram, V. (2013). The Role of Basic Education in Post-Conflict Recovery. Comparative Education, 49(2), 124–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bekalo, S. A., Brophy, M., & Welford, A. G. (2003). The Development of Education in Post-Conflict ‘Somaliland’. International Journal of Educational Development, 23(5), 459–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brannelly, J., Ndaruhutse, S., & Rigaud, C. (2009). Donors Engagement: Supporting Education in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States. Paris and Reading: IIEP and CfBT.Google Scholar
  6. Brock, C. (2011). Education and Conflict: A Fundamental Relationship. In J. Paulson (Ed.), Education, Conflict and Development. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  7. Buckland, P. (2006). Post-Conflict Education: Time for a Reality Check? Forced Migration Review. http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/EducationSupplement/03.pdf.
  8. Christie, P. (2016). Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 14(3), 434–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cunningham, J. (2015). Conflict Transformation Through School: A Curriculum for Sustainable Peace. London: IOE Press.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, L. (2011). Can Education Interrupt Fragility? Towards the Resilient Citizen and the Adaptable State. In K. Mundy & S. Dryden Peterson (Eds.), Educating Children in Conflict Zones. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  11. Dupuy, K. (2008). Education for Peace: Building Peace and Transforming Armed Conflict Through Education Systems. Oslo: Save the Children Norway and International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  12. Ezati, B. A., Ssempala, C., & Ssenkusu, P. (2011). Teachers’ Perceptions of the Effects of Young People’s War Experiences on Teaching and Learning in Northern Uganda. In J. Paulson (Ed.), Education, Conflict and Development. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  13. Gallagher, T. (2009). Approaches to Peace Education: Comparative Lessons. In C. McGlynn, M. Zembbylas, M. Bekerman, & T. Gallagher (Eds.), Peace Education in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Gill, S., & Niens, U. (2014a). Editorial: Education as Humanisation in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Compare, 44(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  15. Gill, S., & Niens, U. (2014b). Education as Humanisation: A Theoretical Review on the Role of Dialogic Pedagogy in Peacebuilding Education. Compare, 44(1), 10–31.Google Scholar
  16. Harber, C. (2013). ‘Education in and After Violent Conflict: Stability and the Status Quo or Transformation and Peace?’ Review Essay. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(2), 213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harber, C., & Davies, L. (1997). School Management and School Effectiveness in Developing Countries. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  18. Higgins, S., & Novelli, M. (2018). The Potential and Pitfalls of Peace Education: A Cultural Political Economy Analysis of the Emerging Issues Teacher Education Curriculum in Sierra Leone. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 6(1), 29–53.Google Scholar
  19. Irvine, R. (2015). Prioritising the Inclusion of Children and Young People with Disabilities in Post-Conflict Education Reform. Child Care in Practice, 21(1), 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karareba, G., Clarke, S., & O’Donoghue, T. (2017). Primary School Leadership in Post-Conflict Rwanda: Arc. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Karpinska, Z. (2012). Education, Aid and Aid Agencies. London: Continuum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kheang, T., O’Donoghue, T., & Clarke, S. (2018). Primary School Leadership in Cambodia. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. King, E. (2011). The Multiple Relationships Between Education and Conflict: Reflections of Rwandan Teachers and Students. In K. Mundy & S. Dryden Peterson (Eds.), Educating Children in Conflict Zones. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  24. Machel, G. (1996). Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, Report of the Expert of the Secretary General of the United Nations. New York: UN and UNICEF.Google Scholar
  25. Mapherson, R. (2009). Educational Administration in Timor Leste: Language Policy and Capacity Building in a Post-Conflict Context. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(2), 186–203.Google Scholar
  26. Matsumoto, M. (2011). Expectations and Realities of Education in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone a Reflection of Society or a Driver for Peacebuilding? In J. Paulson (Ed.), Education, Conflict and Development. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  27. Miles, S. (2013). Education in Times of Conflict and the Invisibility of Disability: A Focus on Iraq? Disability and Society, 28(6), 798–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Milligan, J. A. (2009). Prophetic pragmatism? Post-conflict educational development in Aceh and Mindanao. Diaspora, Indigenous and Minority Education, 3(4), 245–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ndura-Ouedraogo, E. (2009). Grassroots Voices of Hope—Educators’ and Students’ Perspectives on Educating for Peace in Post-Conflict Burundi. In C. McGlynn, M. Zembbylas, M. Bekerman, & T. Gallagher (Eds.), Peace Education in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Nicolai, S. (Ed.). (2009). Opportunities for Change: Education Innovation and Reform After Conflict. Paris: IIEP and UNESCO.Google Scholar
  31. Novelli, M., Higgins, S., Ugur, M., & Valiente, O. (2014). The Political Economy of Education Systems in Conflict-Affected Contexts. London: DfID.Google Scholar
  32. Novelli, M., & Smith, A. (2011). The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: A Synthesis Report of of Findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  33. Osler, A., & Yahya, C. (2013). Challenges and Complexity in Human Rights Education. Education Inquiry, 4(1), 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parker, S., Standing, K., & Pant, B. (2012). Caught in the Cross-Fire: Children’s Right to Education During Conflict—The Case of Nepal 1996–2006. Children and Society, 27, 372–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Paulson, J. (2011). Introduction. In J. Paulson (Ed.), Education, Conflict and Development. Oxford: Symposium Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pherali, T. (2016). School Leadership During Violent Conflict: Rethinking Education for Peace in Nepal and Beyond. Comparative Education, 52(4), 473–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Porter, H. (2015). Say No to Bad Touches: Schools, Sexual Identity and Sexual Violence in Northern Uganda. International Journal of Educational Development, 41, 271–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shah, R. (2012). Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shah, R., & Lopes Cardozo, M. (2015). The Politics of Education in Emergencies and Conflict. In T. McCowan & E. Unterhalter (Eds.), Education and International Development: An Introduction. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  40. Sharkey, D. (2008). Contradictions in Girls Education in a Post-Conflict Setting. Compare, 38(5), 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shepler, S. (2011). Helping Our Children Will Help in the Reconstruction of Our Country: Repatriated Refugee Teachers in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia. In K. Mundy & S. Dryden Peterson (Eds.), Educating Children in Conflict Zones. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  42. Shepler, S., & Williams, J. H. (2017). Understanding Sierra Leonean and Liberian Teachers Views on Discussing Past Wars in Their Classrooms. Compare, 53(3), 418–441.Google Scholar
  43. Sinclair, M. (2013). Learning to Live Together: Education for Conflict Resolution, Responsible Citizenship, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms. Doha: Protect Education in Insecurity and Conflict (PEIC).Google Scholar
  44. Smith Ellison, C. (2014). The Role of Education in Peacebuilding: An Analysis of Five Change Theories in Sierra Leone. Compare, 44(2), 186–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Staeheli, L. A., & Hammett, D. (2013). “For the Future of the Nation”: Citizenship, Nation and Education in South Africa. Political Geography, 32, 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Uddin, A. (2015). Education in Peace-Building: The Case of Post-Conflict Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. Oriental Anthropologist, 15(1), 59–76.Google Scholar
  47. UNESCO. (2011). The Hidden Crisis: Armed Conflict and Education. Paris: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report.Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO. (2013/2014). Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All. Paris: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report.Google Scholar
  49. UNESCO. (2015). Education for All 2000–2015: Achievements and Challenges EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  50. UNESCO. (2018). Accountability in Education: Meeting Our Commitments. Paris: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report.Google Scholar
  51. United Nations. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  52. Vanner, C., Akseer, S., & Kovinthan, T. (2017). Learning Peace (and Conflict): The Role of Primary Learning Materials in Peacebuilding in Post-War Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka. Journal of Peace Education, 14(1), 32–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vongalis-Macrow, A. (2006). Rebuilding Regimes or Rebuilding Community? Teachers Agency for Social Reconstruction in Iraq. Journal of Peace Education, 3(1), 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Williams, P. (2006). Achieving Education for All: Good Practice in Crisis and Post-Conflict Reconstruction. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Winthrop, R., & Kirk, J. (2008). Learning for a Bright Future: Schooling, Armed Conflict and Children’s Well-Being. Comparative Education Review, 52(4), 639–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. World Bank. (2005). Reshaping the Future: Education and Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations