Spinal Trauma

  • Otávio Turolo da Silva
  • Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
  • Alexander R. Vaccaro
  • Richard H. Rothman


Spine trauma involves injuries to the spinal cord and/or the spine elements. Polytrauma patients must be considered as having a spinal injury until all radiological evaluation has been carried out. Hypoxemia and hypotension can worsen spinal cord injury and should be promptly recognized and treated. Computed tomography (CT) scan is the best radiological modality for diagnosing a spinal fracture, but additional radiological exams may be necessary, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a general rule, stable injuries may be managed nonsurgically, whereas unstable injuries require surgical treatment to avoid development of deformity, worsening pain, or neurologic injury. Ligamentous injuries, such as seen in spine dislocations, are often unstable lesions and require surgical treatment. Special attention should be taken when evaluating children and the elderly with spinal fractures.


Spinal cord injury Traumatic spine injury Spinal fracture 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otávio Turolo da Silva
    • 1
  • Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
    • 1
  • Alexander R. Vaccaro
    • 2
  • Richard H. Rothman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery divisionUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and NeurosurgeryRothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Sidney Kimmel Medical Center at Thomas Jefferson University, Rothman InstitutePhiladelphiaUSA

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