Advertisement

Toward the Integration of the Data-Driven City, the Eco-city and the Compact City: Constructing a Future Vision of the Smart Sustainable City

  • Simon Elias BibriEmail author
Chapter
  • 506 Downloads
Part of the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation book series (ASTI)

Abstract

At the beginning of a new decade, we have the opportunity to look forward and consider what we could achieve in the coming years in the era of big data revolution. Again, we have the chance to consider the desired future of the data-driven smart sustainable city as we are in the midst of an expansion of time horizons in city planning and development. Sustainable cities look further into the future when forming scenarios. The movement toward a long-term vision arises from three major megatrends or macro-shifts that shape our societies at a growing pace: sustainability, disruptive technology, and urbanization. Recognizing a link between these trends or shifts, sustainable cities have adopted ambitious goals that extend far into the future, which relate to the way they should be monitored, understood, and analyzed to improve, advance, and maintain their contribution to sustainability, and hence to overcome the kind of wicked problems, intractable issues, and complex challenges they embody. Indeed, sustainable cities and smart cities as landscapes and approaches are extremely fragmented and weakly connected, respectively. Moreover, there are multiple visions of, and pathways to achieving, smart sustainable cities based on how they can be conceptualized and operationalized. As a corollary of this, there is a host of opportunities to explore toward new approaches to smart sustainable urbanism. The aim of this futures study is to analyze, investigate, and develop a novel model for smart sustainable city of the future using backcasting as a scholarly and planning methodology. In doing so, it endeavors to integrate the physical landscape of sustainable cities with the informational landscape of smart cities at the technical level, as well as to merge the two strategies on several scales, all in the context of sustainability. This chapter is concerned with Step 3 of the backcasting approach being used to achieve the overall aim of the futures study. In this respect, it aims to report the outcome of Step 3 by answering 6 guiding questions. Visionary images of a long-term future can stimulate an accelerated movement toward achieving the long-term goals of sustainability. The proposed model is believed to be the first of its kind and thus has not been, to the best of one’s knowledge, produced, nor is it being currently investigated, elsewhere.

Keywords

Smart sustainable cities Sustainable cities Smart cities Data-driven cities Compact cities Eco-cities Big data technology Urban planning and design Backcasting Future vision Futures study 

References

  1. Al Nuaimi, E., Al Neyadi, H., Nader, M., & Al-Jaroodi, J. (2015). Applications of big data to smart cities. Journal of Internet Services and Applications, 6(25), 1–15.Google Scholar
  2. Alberti, M. (2000). Urban form and ecosystem dynamics: Empirical evidence and practical implications. In K. Williams, E. Burton, & M. Jenks (Eds.), Achieving sustainable urban form (pp. 84–96). London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  3. Angelidou, M., Psaltoglou, A., Komninos, N., Kakderi, C., Tsarchopoulos, P., & Panori, A. (2017). Enhancing sustainable urban development through smart city applications. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 9(2), 146–169. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTPM-05-2017-0016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batty, M., Axhausen, K. W., Giannotti, F., Pozdnoukhov, A., Bazzani, A., Wachowicz, M., et al. (2012). Smart cities of the future. The European Physical Journal, 214, 481–518.Google Scholar
  5. Beatley, T. (2000). Green urbanism: Learning from European cities. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bettencourt, L. M. A. (2014). The uses of big data in cities. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Santa Fe Institute.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bibri, S. E. (2018a). Smart sustainable cities of the future: The untapped potential of big data analytics and context aware computing for advancing sustainability. Germany, Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bibri, S. E. (2018b). The IoT for smart sustainable cities of the future: An analytical framework for sensor-based big data applications for environmental sustainability. Sustainable Cities and Society, 38, 230–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bibri, S. E. (2018c). A foundational framework for smart sustainable city development: Theoretical, disciplinary, and discursive dimensions and their synergies. Sustainable Cities and Society, 38, 758–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bibri, S. E. (2018d). Backcasting in futures studies: A synthesized scholarly and planning approach to strategic smart sustainable city development. European Journal of Future Research, 6, 13.Google Scholar
  11. Bibri, S. E. (2019a). On the sustainability of smart and smarter cities and related big data applications: An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary review and synthesis. Journal of Big Data, 6, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-019-0182-7.
  12. Bibri, S. E. (2019b). A novel model for smart sustainable city of the future: A scholarly backcasting approach to its analysis, investigation, and development. Journal of CITA (in press).Google Scholar
  13. Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2017a). Smart sustainable cities of the future: An extensive interdisciplinary literature review. Sustainable Cities and Society, 31, 183–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2017b). ICT of the new wave of computing for sustainable urban forms: Their big data and context-aware augmented typologies and design concepts. Sustainable Cities and Society, 32, 449–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2017c). The core enabling technologies of big data analytics and context-aware computing for smart sustainable cities: A review and synthesis. Journal of Big Data, 4(38), 1–50.Google Scholar
  16. Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2018). The big data deluge for transforming the knowledge of smart sustainable cities: A data mining framework for urban analytics. In Proceedings of the 3rd Annual International Conference on Smart City Applications, ACM, Tetouan, Morocco, October 11–12.Google Scholar
  17. Bibri, S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2019). A novel model for smart sustainable city of the future: A scholarly backcasting approach to its analysis, investigation, and development. European Journal of Future Research (in press).Google Scholar
  18. Bifulco, F., Tregua, M., Amitrano, C. C., & D’Auria, A. (2016). ICT and sustainability in smart cities management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 29(2), 132–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breheny, M. (Ed.). (1992). Sustainable development and urban form. London: Pion.Google Scholar
  20. Bulkeley, H., & Betsill, M. (2005). Rethinking sustainable cities: Multilevel governance and the “urban” politics of climate change. Environmental Politics, 14(1), 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burton, E. (2000). The compact city: Just or just compact? A preliminary analysis. Urban Studies, 37(11), 1969–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burton, E. (2002). Measuring urban compactness in UK towns and cities. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 29, 219–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Dreborg, K. H., Eenkhorn, B. R., Engström, R., & Falkena, B. (2003). Image of everyday life in the future sustainable city: Experiences of back-casting with stakeholders in five European cities (The Environmental Strategies Research Group (Fms)—Report 182). Stockholm, Sweden: The Royal Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  24. Council of Europe. (1993). The European urban charter. In Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe. http://www.coe.int/T/E/Clrae/.
  25. Dantzing, G. B., & Saaty, T. L. (1973). Compact city: A plan for a livable urban environment. San Francisco, W.H: Freeman.Google Scholar
  26. David, D. (2017). Environment and urbanization. The International Encyclopedia of Geography, 24(1), 31–46.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dempsey, N. (2010). Revisiting the compact city? Built Environment, 36(1), 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dempsey, N., & Jenks, M. (2010). The future of the compact city. Built Environment, 36(1), 116–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dreborg, K. H. (1996). Essence of backcasting. Futures, 28(9), 813–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estevez, E., Lopes, N. V., & Janowski, T. (2016). Smart sustainable cities. Reconnaissance study (p. 330).Google Scholar
  31. Graedel, T. (2011). Industrial ecology and the ecocity. National Academy of Engineering.Google Scholar
  32. Han, J., Meng, X., Zhou, X., Yi, B., Liu, M., & Xiang, W.-N. (2016). A long-term analysis of urbanization process, landscape change, and carbon sources and sinks: A case study in China’s Yangtze River Delta region. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141, 1040–1050.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Handy, S. (1996). Methodologies for exploring the link between urban form and travel behavior. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 2(2), 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harvey, F. (2011). Green vision: The search for the ideal eco-city. Financial Times, London.Google Scholar
  35. Hofstad, H. (2012). Compact city development: High ideals and emerging practices. European Journal of Spatial Planning, 49, 1–23.Google Scholar
  36. Hollands, R. G. (2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? City Anal Urban Trends Cult Theory. Policy Action, 12(3), 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holmberg, J., & Robèrt, K. H. (2000). Backcasting from non-overlapping sustainability principles: A framework for strategic planning. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 7(4), 291–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jabareen, Y. R. (2006). Sustainable urban forms: Their typologies, models, and concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26, 38–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (1996a). A sustainable future through the compact city? Urban intensification in the United Kingdom. Environments by Design, 1(1), 5–20.Google Scholar
  40. Jenks, M., Burton, E., & Williams, K. (Eds.). (1996b). The compact city: A sustainable urban form?. London: E&FN Spon Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jenks, M., & Dempsey, N. (Eds.). (2005). Future forms and design for sustainable cities. Oxford: Architectural Press.Google Scholar
  42. Joss, S. (2010). Eco-cities—A global survey 2009. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 129, 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Joss, S. (2011). Eco-cities: The mainstreaming of urban sustainability; key characteristics and driving factors. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 6(3), 268–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Joss, S., Cowley, R., & Tomozeiu, D. (2013). Towards the ubiquitous eco-city: An analysis of the internationalisation of eco-city policy and practice. Journal of Urban Research & Practice, 76, 16–22.Google Scholar
  45. Kitchin, R. (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. GeoJournal, 79, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kitchin, R. (2015). Data-driven, networked urbanism.  https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2641802.
  47. Kitchin, R. (2016). The ethics of smart cities and urban science. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 374, 20160115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P., & Arribas-Bel, D. (2012). Smart cities perspective—A comparative European study by means of self-organizing maps. Innovation, 25(2), 229–246.Google Scholar
  49. Kramers, A., Höjer, M., Lövehagen, N., & Wangel, J. (2014). Smart sustainable cities: Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities. Environmental Modelling and Software, 56, 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kramers, A., Wangel, J., & Höjer, M. (2016) Governing the smart sustainable city: The case of the Stockholm royal seaport. In Proceedings of ICT for Sustainability 2016 (Vol. 46, pp. 99–108). Amsterdam: Atlantis Press.Google Scholar
  51. Miola, A. (2008). Backcasting approach for sustainable mobility. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability.Google Scholar
  52. Neirotti, P., De Marco, A., Cagliano, A. C., Mangano, G., & Scorrano, F. (2014). Current trends in smart city initiatives—Some stylized facts. Cities, 38, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Newman, P. (2000). Urban form and environmental performance. In: K. Williams, E. Burton, M. Jenks (Eds.), Achieving sustainable urban (pp. 46–53). London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  54. Neuman, M. (2005). The compact city fallacy. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25, 11–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pantelis, K., & Aija, L. (2013). Understanding the value of (big) data. In Big Data 2013 IEEE International Conference on IEEE (pp. 38–42).Google Scholar
  56. Parker, T. (1994). The land use—air quality linkage: How land use and transportation affect air quality. California Air Resources Board, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  57. Phdungsilp, A. (2011). Futures studies’ backcasting method used for strategic sustainable city planning. Futures, 43(7), 707–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rapoport, E., & Vernay, A. L. (2011). Defining the eco-city: A discursive approach (pp. 1–15). Paper presented at the Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment Conference, International Eco-cities Initiative, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  59. Rathore, M. M., Won–HwaHong, A. P., Seo, H. C., Awan, I., & Saeed, S. (2018). Exploiting IoT and big data analytics: Defining smart digital city using real–time urban data. Journal of Sustainable Cities and Society, 40, 600–610.Google Scholar
  60. Register, R. (2002). Eco-cities: Building cities in balance with nature. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Hills Books.Google Scholar
  61. Rivera, M. B., Eriksson, E., & Wangel, J. (2015). ICT practices in smart sustainable cities—In the intersection of technological solutions and practices of everyday life. In 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection (EnviroInfo 2015), Third International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S 2015) (pp. 317–324). Atlantis Press.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, J., & Tinker, J. (1998). Reconciling ecological, economic and social imperatives. In J. Schnurr & S. Holtz (Eds.), The cornerstone of development: Integrating environmental, social, and economic policies (pp. 9–43). Ottawa, Canada: IDRC International Development Research Center and Lewis Publishers.Google Scholar
  63. Roseland, M. (1997). Dimensions of the eco-city. Cities, 14(4), 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rotmans, J., et al. (2000). Visions for a sustainable Europe. Futures, 32(2000), 809–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sev, A. (2009). How can the construction industry contribute to sustainable development? A conceptual framework. Sustainable Development, 17, 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shahrokni, H., Årman, L., Lazarevic, D., Nilsson, A., & Brandt, N. (2015). Implementing smart urban metabolism in the Stockholm royal seaport: Smart city SRS. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 19(5), 917–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Talen, E., & Ellis, C. (2002). Beyond relativism: Reclaiming the search for good city form. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 22, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tuominent, Tapio, P., Jarvi, T., & Banister, D. (2014). Pluralistic backcasting: Integrating multiple visions with policy packages for transport climate policy. Futures, 60, 41–58.Google Scholar
  69. Townsend, A. (2013). Smart cities—Big data, civic hackers and the quest for a new utopia. New York: Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  70. United Nations. (2015). Big data and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Prepared by A. Maaroof. Available at: www.unescap.org/events/call-participants-big-data-and-2030-agendasustainable-development-achieving-development.
  71. Van Bueren, E., van Bohemen, H., Itard, L., & Visscher, H. (2011). Sustainable urban environments: An ecosystem approach. New York: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  72. Van, U. -P., & Senior, M. (2000). The contribution of mixed land uses to sustainable travel in cities. In: K. Williams, E. Burton, M. Jenks (Eds.), Achieving sustainable urban form (pp. 139–148). London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  73. Welbank, M. (1996). The search for a sustainable urban form. In M. Jenks, E. Burton, & K. Williams (Eds.), The compact city: A sustainable urban form? (pp. 74–82). London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  74. Wheeler, S. M., & Beatley, T. (Eds.). (2010). The sustainable urban development reader. London, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Whitehead, M. (2003). (Re)analysing the sustainable city: Nature, urbanism and the regulation of socio-environmental relations in the UK. Urban Studies, 40(7), 1183–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams, K. (2009). Sustainable cities: Research and practice challenges. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 1(1), 128–132.Google Scholar
  77. Williams, K., Burton, E., & Jenks, M. (Eds.). (2000). Achieving sustainable urban form. London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  78. Yigitcanlar, T., & Lee, S. H. (2013). Korean ubiquitous-eco-city: A smart-sustainable urban form or a branding hoax? Journal of Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 100–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Department of Urban Planning and DesignNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations