Lamps, Gear and Drivers

  • Wout van Bommel


Since the early 60s of last century small solid-state, low-brightness, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used as indicator and signal lamps. Only after the development of a high-power blue-light LED in 1995 it became possible to produce white-light LEDs. From that moment onwards, solid-state lighting became gradually available as a fundamentally new type of light source. Today, for most lighting applications, LEDs have taken over from all traditional light sources including gas-discharge lamps. This is for reasons of efficiency, long lifetime and because more emphasis is placed on improved colour quality and tunability of light. LEDs also have distinct benefits for smart lighting.

LEDs offer many new possibilities of designing lighting installations that truly fulfil end users varying needs in a cost- and energy-friendly way. However, to be successful in realising such installations, a thorough knowledge of the properties of solid-state light sources is needed. For this purpose, this chapter explains the fundamental principle of light emission by solid-state lamps and describes their construction and properties. Both inorganic LEDs and organic planar OLEDs are dealt with.

Of the traditional light sources, the incandescent, halogen, tubular and compact fluorescent, compact metal-halide and induction lamps will be still quite some time around. Therefore, but also because they still often act as the standard against which new light sources are compared, these traditional lamps are also described in this chapter.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wout van Bommel
    • 1
  1. 1.Van Bommel Lighting ConsultantNuenenThe Netherlands

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