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Drs. DePace and Colombo augmented the Philadelphia Formula for Reversing and Halting Atherosclerosis by adding features that focus on relieving parasympathetic and sympathetic (P&S) dysfunction. Autonomic dysfunction involves any disorder, disease, or malfunction of the ANS, including one or both of its two branches: the P&S nervous systems. Mitochondria dysfunction involves any disorder or disease associated with low energy states (including anxiety secondary to (preclinical) depression). Both mitochondria and the P&S nervous systems effect virtually every cell of the human body, and their proper functioning are considered to be foundational to establishing and maintaining health and wellness. In this chapter the “six-prong” formula is introduced, with its combined (in toto) effect on both mitochondria and the P&S nervous system and thereby its combined effect on the entire body as it subserves health and wellness.


  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Brain-heart health
  • Mind-body wellness
  • Mitochondria
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • Sympathetic nervous system

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Fig. 1.1


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DePace, N.L., Colombo, J. (2019). Introduction. In: Clinical Autonomic and Mitochondrial Disorders. Springer, Cham.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-17015-8

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