Reversible Data Hiding in Binary Images by Symmetrical Flipping Degree Histogram Modification

  • Xiaolin Yin
  • Wei LuEmail author
  • Wanteng Liu
  • Junhong Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 895)


In recent years, reversible data hiding in binary images has become more and more important in the field of data hiding. For the binary property, hiding information in binary images can only be achieved by flipping pixels. But flipping the pixels randomly in a binary image will cause remarkable distortion. The existing methods are capable of reversible data hiding in binary images but the visual quality is not good. In this paper, we propose a novel reversible data hiding method based on symmetrical flipping degree (SFD) histogram modification. First, we define the SFD of the block, which is a visual score measured the distance between the pixels in the block. The smaller SFD is, the better the visual quality the image has. Then the histogram is generated from the SFD, and it utilizes the zero or the minimum point and modifies the pixels with high SFD for its pre-processing. Finally, the appropriate corresponding pixels are selected adaptively to flip for information embedding. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed method and the visual quality is satisfactory.


Reversible data hiding Symmetrical flipping degree (SFD) Histogram modification Binary image 



This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1736118), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong (No. 2016A030313350), the Special Funds for Science and Technology Development of Guangdong (No. 2016KZ010103), the Key Project of Scientific Research Plan of Guangzhou (No. 201804020068), Shanghai Minsheng Science and Technology Support Program (17DZ1205500), Shanghai Sailing Program (17YF1420000), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 16lgjc83 and No. 17lgjc45).


  1. 1.
    Bao, F., Deng, R.H., Ooi, B.C., Yang, Y.: Tailored reversible watermarking schemes for authentication of electronic clinical atlas. IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 9(4), 554 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cao, H., Kot, A.C.: On establishing edge adaptive grid for bilevel image data hiding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 8(9), 1508–1518 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen, J., Lu, W., Yeung, Y., Xue, Y., Liu, X., Lin, C., Zhang, Y.: Binary image steganalysis based on distortion level co-occurrence matrix. Comput. Mater. Continua 55(2), 201–211 (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, X., Jian, W., Wei, L., Jiaming, X.: Multi-gait recognition based on attribute discovery. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 40(7), 1697–1710 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feng, B., Lu, W., Dai, L., Sun, W.: Steganography based on high-dimensional reference table. In: International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 574–587 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng, B., Lu, W., Sun, W.: High capacity data hiding scheme for binary images based on minimizing flipping distortion. In: International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, pp. 514–528 (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feng, B., Lu, W., Sun, W.: Secure binary image steganography based on minimizing the distortion on the texture. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 10(2), 243–255 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feng, B., Weng, J., Lu, W., Pei, B.: Steganalysis of content-adaptive binary image data hiding. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 46, 119–127 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ho, Y.A., Wu, H.C., Wu, H.C., Chu, Y.P.: High-capacity reversible data hiding in binary images using pattern substitution. Comput. Stan. Interfaces 31(4), 787–794 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, C., Baek, J., Fisher, P.S.: Lossless data hiding for binary document images using n-pairs pattern. In: International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology, pp. 317–327 (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lin, X., Feng, B., Lu, W., Sun, W.: Content-adaptive residual for steganalysis. In: International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 389–398 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu, X., Lu, W., Huang, T., Liu, H., Xue, Y., Yeung, Y.: Scaling factor estimation on JPEG compressed images by cyclostationarity analysis. Multimedia Tools Appl. pp. 1–18 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lu, H., Kot, A.C., Shi, Y.Q.: Distance-reciprocal distortion measure for binary document images. IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 11(2), 228–231 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lu, W., He, L., Yeung, Y., Xue, Y., Liu, H., Feng, B.: Secure binary image steganography based on fused distortion measurement. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. PP, 1 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ni, Z., Shi, Y.Q., Ansari, N., Su, W.: Reversible data hiding. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 16(3), 354–362 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tai, W.L., Yeh, C.M., Chang, C.C.: Reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of pixel differences. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 19(6), 906–910 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsai, C.L., Chiang, H.F., Fan, K.C., Chung, C.D.: Reversible data hiding and lossless reconstruction of binary images using pair-wise logical computation mechanism. Pattern Recogn. 38(11), 1993–2006 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu, M., Liu, B.: Data hiding in binary image for authentication and annotation. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 6(4), 528–538 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, M., Tang, E., Lin, B.: Data hiding in digital binary image. In: IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, pp. 393–396 (2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xuan, G., Shi, Y.Q., Chai, P., Tong, X., Teng, J., Li, J.: Reversible binary image data hiding by run-length histogram modification. In: International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Tampa, FL, USA, pp. 1–4 (2008)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xue, Y., Liu, W., Lu, W., Yeung, Y., Liu, X., Liu, H.: Efficient halftone image steganography based on dispersion degree optimization. J. Real Time Image Process. pp. 1–9 (2018)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang, H., Kot, A.C.: Pattern-based data hiding for binary image authentication by connectivity-preserving. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 9(3), 475–486 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoo, J.C., Ahn, C.W.: Image matching using peak signal-to-noise ratio-based occlusion detection. IET Image Process. 6(5), 483–495 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang, W., Hu, X., Li, X., Yu, N.: Recursive histogram modification: establishing equivalency between reversible data hiding and lossless data compression. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22(7), 2775–2785 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhao, Z., Luo, H., Lu, Z.M., Pan, J.S.: Reversible data hiding based on multilevel histogram modification and sequential recovery. AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun. 65(10), 814–826 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Data and Computer Science, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Information Security Technology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Machine Intelligence and Advanced ComputingSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations