Relations Between Secret Sharing and Secret Image Sharing

  • Xuehu YanEmail author
  • Jinming Li
  • Yuliang Lu
  • Lintao Liu
  • Guozheng Yang
  • Huixian Chen
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 895)


Secret sharing (SS) for (kn) threshold generates secret data into n shadows, where any k or more shadows can reconstruct the secret while any \(k-1\) or less shadows reconstruct nothing of the secret. SS is useful for cloud computing security, block chain security and so on. Since nowadays image covers more information, secret image sharing (SIS) is studied widely. Although most SIS principles are derived from SS and SIS belongs to SS, SIS has its specific features comparing to SS due to image characteristics, such as, pixel value range, region relationship and so on. In this paper, first we discuss the relations between SIS and SS, where differences between them are mainly considered. Then, some typical sharing principles are employed to further indicate the differences and analyze the possible ways to deal with the issues when directly applying SS to SIS. Finally, we perform experiments to verify our analyses.


Information hiding Secret sharing Secret image sharing Polynomial Chinese remainder theorem 



The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number: 61602491) and Key Program of National University of Defense Technology.


  1. 1.
    Shamir, A.: How to share a secret. Commun. ACM 22(11), 612–613 (1979)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blakley, G.R.: Safeguarding cryptographic keys. In: Proceedings of the National Computer Conference, New York, USA, pp. 313–317. IEEE Computer Society. IEEE (1979)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Wan, S., Ding, W., Liu, H.: Exploiting the homomorphic property of visual cryptography. Int. J. Digit. Crime Forensics (IJDCF) 9(2), 45–56 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Belazi, A., El-Latif, A.A.A.: A simple yet efficient s-box method based on chaotic sine map. Optik Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 130, 1438–1444 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Wan, S., Ding, W., Liu, H.: Security analysis of secret image sharing. In: Proceedings of the Data Science: Third International Conference of Pioneering Computer Scientists, Engineers and Educators, ICPCSEE 2017, Part I, Changsha, China, 22–24 September 2017, pp. 305–316 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asmuth, C., Bloom, J.: A modular approach to key safeguarding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 29(2), 208–210 (1983)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naor, M., Shamir, A.: Visual cryptography. In: Workshop on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques on Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 1994. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Perugia, Italy, 9–12 May 1994, pp. 1–12. Springer (1995)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang, G., Liu, F., Yan, W.Q.: Basic visual cryptography using Braille. Int. J. Digit. Crime Forensics 8(3), 85–93 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thien, C.C., Lin, J.C.: Secret image sharing. Comput. Graph. 26(5), 765–770 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang, C.N., Ciou, C.B.: Image secret sharing method with two-decoding-options: lossless recovery and previewing capability. Image Vis. Comput. 28(12), 1600–1610 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li, P., Ma, P.J., Su, X.H., Yang, C.N.: Improvements of a two-in-one image secret sharing scheme based on gray mixing model. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 23(3), 441–453 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, P., Yang, C.N., Kong, Q.: A novel two-in-one image secret sharing scheme based on perfect black visual cryptography. J. Real-Time Image Proc. 14(1), 41–50 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cimato, S., De Prisco, R., De Santis, A.: Probabilistic visual cryptography schemes. Comput. J. 49(1), 97–107 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang, D., Zhang, L., Ma, N., Li, X.: Two secret sharing schemes based on boolean operations. Pattern Recognit. 40(10), 2776–2785 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang, Z., Arce, G.R., Di Crescenzo, G.: Halftone visual cryptography via error diffusion. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 4(3), 383–396 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weir, J., Yan, W.: A comprehensive study of visual cryptography. In: Shi, Y.Q. (ed.) Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security V. LNCS, vol. 6010, pp. 70–105. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yan, X., Wang, S., Niu, X.: Threshold construction from specific cases in visual cryptography without the pixel expansion. Sig. Process. 105, 389–398 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu, X., Sun, W.: Improving the visual quality of random grid-based visual secret sharing. Sig. Process. 93(5), 977–995 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yan, X., Liu, X., Yang, C.N.: An enhanced threshold visual secret sharing based on random grids. J. Real-Time Image Proc. 14(1), 61–73 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guo, T., Liu, F., Wu, C.: Threshold visual secret sharing by random grids with improved contrast. J. Syst. Softw. 86(8), 2094–2109 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fu, Z.x., Yu, B.: Visual cryptography and random grids schemes. In: Shi, Y., Kim, H.J., Pérez-González, F. (eds.) Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, pp. 109–122. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yan, X., Wang, S., Niu, X., Yang, C.N.: Generalized random grids-based threshold visual cryptography with meaningful shares. Sig. Process. 109, 317–333 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yan, X., Wang, S., Li, L., El-Latif, A.A.A., Wei, Z., Niu, X.: A new assessment measure of shadow image quality based on error diffusion techniques. J. Inf. Hiding Multimedia Signal Process. (JIHMSP) 4(2), 118–126 (2013)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu, F., Wu, C.: Embedded extended visual cryptography schemes. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 6(2), 307–322 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan, X., Wang, S., Niu, X., Yang, C.N.: Halftone visual cryptography with minimum auxiliary black pixels and uniform image quality. Digit. Sig. Process. 38, 53–65 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ateniese, G., Blundo, C., De Santis, A., Stinson, D.R.: Visual cryptography for general access structures. Inf. Comput. 129(2), 86–106 (1996)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y.: Progressive visual secret sharing for general access structure with multiple decryptions. Multimedia Tools Appl. 77(2), 2653–2672 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhou, X., Lu, Y., Yan, X., Wang, Y., Liu, L.: Lossless and efficient polynomial-based secret image sharing with reduced shadow size. Symmetry 10(7), 249 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Liu, J., Yang, G.: Secret data fusion based on Chinese remainder theorem. In: 2018 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing, pp. 380–385. IEEE (2018)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Wan, S., Ding, W., Liu, H.: Chinese remainder theorem-based secret image sharing for (k, n) threshold. In: Cloud Computing and Security: Third International Conference, ICCCS 2017, Part II. Revised Selected Papers, Nanjing, China, 16–18 June 2017, pp. 433–440 (2017)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen, J., Liu, K., Yan, X., Liu, L., Zhou, X., Tan, L.: Chinese remainder theorem-based secret image sharing with small-sized shadow images. Symmetry 10(8), 340 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Liu, J., Yang, G.: Chinese remainder theorem-based two-in-one image secret sharing with three decoding options. Digit. Sig. Process. 82, 80–90 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L.: General meaningful shadow construction in secret image sharing. IEEE Access 6(1), 45246–45255 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kafri, O., Keren, E.: Encryption of pictures and shapes by random grids. Opt. Lett. 12(6), 377–379 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yan, X., Lu, Y., Liu, L., Wan, S.: Random grids-based threshold visual secret sharing with improved visual quality. In: Digital Forensics and Watermarking: 15th International Workshop, IWDW 2017. Revised Selected Papers, Beijing, China, 17–19 September 2016, pp. 209–222 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National University of Defense TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.32126 InstituteShenyangChina
  3. 3.Artillery Air Defense AcademyHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations