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Cardiac-Pericardial Disease

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Abstract

This chapter describes the spectrum of imaging appearances of enlargement of various cardiac chambers, mitral annulus, ventricular aneurysm, and pericardial calcification, pericardial effusion, and constrictive pericarditis.

Keywords

  • Cardiac chamber enlargement
  • Double density sign
  • Mitral annulus calcification
  • Left ventricular aneurysm calcification
  • Pericardial calcification
  • High-output failure
  • Pericardial effusion
  • Constrictive pericarditis

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-16826-1_19
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References

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  3. Wang ZJ, Reddy GP, Gotway MB, et al. CT and MR imaging of pericardial disease. Radiographics. 2003;23:S167–80.

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Fig. e19.1

Right ventricular enlargement. (a) Filling of the retrosternal space along with striking poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (arrow) in a patient with pulmonic stenosis [1] (TIF 772 kb)

Fig. e19.1

Right ventricular enlargement. (b) Filling of the retrosternal space along with striking poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (arrow) in a patient with pulmonic stenosis [1] (TIF 874 kb)

Fig. e19.2

Right atrial enlargement. Prominent bulging of the right heart border associated with decreased pulmonary vascularity in a patient with pulmonary atresia [1] (TIF 655 kb)

Fig. e19.3

Discordant pattern of very large cardiac silhouette and normal pulmonary vessels. (a) Cardiomyopathy (TIF 1687 kb)

Fig. e19.3

Discordant pattern of very large cardiac silhouette and normal pulmonary vessels. (b) Pericardial effusion (TIF 1526 kb)

Fig. e19.4

Mitral stenosis. (a) Normal overall size of the cardiac silhouette with enlarged left atrium (arrows) [1] (TIF 737 kb)

Fig. e19.4

Mitral stenosis. (b) Normal overall size of the cardiac silhouette with enlarged left atrium (arrows) [1] (TIF 946 kb)

Fig. e19.5

Aortic aneurysm. Normal overall size of the cardiac silhouette with enlarged ascending aorta (arrow) [2] (TIF 791 kb)

Fig. e19.6

Calcified ventricular aneurysm on CT (arrows). (Courtesy of Diana Litmanovich, MD, Boston, MA) (TIF 662 kb)

Fig. e19.7

High-output failure. Marked cardiomegaly with a generalized increase in pulmonary vascular markings in a patient with sickle cell disease [1] (TIF 669 kb)

Fig. e19.8

Infectious pericardial effusion. Globular enlargement of the cardiac silhouette reflects a combination of pericarditis and pericardial effusion in a patient with coxsackievirus infection [1] (TIF 737 kb)

Fig. e19.9

Large pericardial effusion. (a) Prominent cardiomegaly (water-bottle heart) with normal pulmonary vessels, a discordance that suggests pericardial effusion (TIF 1777 kb)

Fig. e19.9

Large pericardial effusion. (b) CT images confirm the diagnosis in a patient with tuberculous pericarditis (arrows) (TIF 549 kb)

Fig. e19.9

Large pericardial effusion. (c) CT images confirm the diagnosis in a patient with tuberculous pericarditis (arrows) (TIF 1051 kb)

Fig. e19.10

CT characterization of pericardial fluid. (a) On this contrast-enhanced scan, a simple pericardial effusion (∗) has the same attenuation as water (TIF 1495 kb)

Fig. e19.10

CT characterization of pericardial fluid. (b) A serosanguinous pericardial effusion shows enhancement (∗) [3] (TIF 836 kb)

Fig. e19.11

MRI characterization of pericardial fluid. (a) Cine GRE image shows a high-signal-intensity effusion (∗), consistent with nonhemorrhagic fluid (TIF 701 kb)

Fig. e19.11

MRI characterization of pericardial fluid. (b) T1-weighted MR image shows an effusion with high signal intensity (∗), suggestive of hemorrhage [3] (TIF 578 kb)

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Eisenberg, R.L. (2020). Cardiac-Pericardial Disease. In: What Radiology Residents Need to Know: Chest Radiology . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16826-1_19

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16826-1_19

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-16825-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-16826-1

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