• Josep SolerEmail author
  • Lídia Gallego-BalsàEmail author


This book has explored in some detail how the attempts by Catalan universities to respond to the challenges of becoming more international in focus, while remaining very much locally grounded and nationally relevant, affect the languages of teaching and learning, particularly Catalan. Universities are a key site for exploring compelling issues of a sociolinguistic and applied linguistic nature because they are important state (i.e. national) institutions which are increasingly portrayed as internationally relevant players in a global educational market. Consequently, many universities are saturated with discourses which fluctuate between the nationalising and the globalising poles. The interplay between such discourses frequently lead to tensions, ambiguities, dilemmas, and aspirations, which can materialise in the articulation of specific language policy documents authored by university councils or other relevant authorities. In this chapter, we summarise the key findings around the stance-taking processes of the different stakeholders primarily involved in the higher education system of Catalonia.


Language policy Higher education Catalonia Stance Policy documents Stakeholders 


  1. Bastardas-Boada, A. (2012). Language and identity policies in the ‘glocal’ age: New processes, effects, and principles of organization. Barcelona: Institut d’Estudis Autonòmics.Google Scholar
  2. Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2017). Minority languages and sustainable translanguaging: Threat or opportunity? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(10), 901–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cots, J. M. (2008). International universities in bilingual communities (Catalonia, Basque Country and Wales): A research project. In H. Haberland, J. Mortensen, A. Fabricius, B. Preisler, K. Risager, & K. Kjaerbeck (Eds.), Higher education in the global village. Roskilde: Roskilde University.Google Scholar
  4. García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. García, O., & Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Hultgren, A. K., Gregersen, F., & Thøgersen, J. (2014). English in Nordic universities. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  7. Johnson, D. (2009). Ethnography of language policy. Language Policy, 8(2), 139–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Källkvist, M., & Hult, F. M. (2016). Discursive mechanisms and human agency in language policy formation: Negotiating bilingualism and parallel language use at a Swedish university. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Montero, M. (2017, January 5). Nearly 60% of Spaniards say they can’t read, speak or write in English. El País (in English). Retrieved from
  10. Palmer, J. D., & Cho, Y. H. (2012). South Korean higher education internationalization policies: Perceptions and experiences. Asia Pacific Education Review, 13(3), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Soler, J., & Vihman, V. A. (2018). Language ideology and language planning in Estonian higher education: Nationalising and globalising discourses. Current Issues in Language Planning, 19(1), 22–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Spolsky, B. (2004). Language practices, ideologies and beliefs, and management and planning. In B. Spolsky (Ed.), Language policy (pp. 1–15). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Van der Walt, C. (2013). Multilingual higher education: Beyond English medium orientations. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Van der Walt, C. (2016). Reconsidering the role of language-in-education policies in multilingual higher education contexts. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, 49, 85–104. Scholar
  15. Vila, F. X. (2015). Medium-sized languages as viable linguae academicae. In F. X. Vila & V. Bretxa (Eds.), Language policy in higher education: The case of medium-sized languages (pp. 181–210). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  16. Woolard, K. A. (2016). Singular and plural: Ideologies of linguistic authority in 21st century Catalonia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EnglishStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of English and LinguisticsUniversity of LleidaLleidaSpain

Personalised recommendations