Advertisement

Dusky Dolphins of Continental Shelves and Deep Canyons

  • Heidi C. PearsonEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Ethology and Behavioral Ecology of Marine Mammals book series (EBEMM)

Abstract

Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) exhibit highly flexible foraging and social strategies. Studies in three distinct environments offer a natural experiment for understanding influences shaping dusky dolphin societies. In shallow bays off Patagonia, Argentina, dusky dolphins form small traveling groups during the day in search of small, schooling fish, but fission-fusion of large groups enhances predator detection/avoidance and mating opportunities. Predation risk is also minimized by resting in small groups near shore at night. In the deep open waters off Kaikoura, New Zealand, large mixed age and sex groups and satellite mating and nursery groups occur. Loosely coordinated subgroups forage nocturnally on the deep scattering layer. Large group formation is again an anti-predation strategy. In the shallow wintertime habitat of Admiralty Bay, New Zealand, coordinated bait-ball foraging occurs but in smaller groups than off Patagonia. Outside of the breeding season and in the absence of predation risk, Admiralty Bay grouping patterns are driven by opportunities to secure prey and social partners. Compared to many other delphinids, dusky dolphins are more gregarious yet more loosely bonded. The social brain hypothesis helps to explain the evolution of large relative brain size and complex sociality in dusky dolphins. Bycatch, habitat loss, climate change, and whale-watching are current threats to the species. Application of new technology and research on female behavior, culture, and lesser-studied populations will help to fill knowledge gaps and advance conservation strategies.

Keywords

Lagenorhynchus obscurus Argentina New Zealand Foraging Behavioral flexibility Grouping patterns Fission-fusion Social structure Intelligence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Bernd and Mel Würsig for introducing me to dusky dolphins and for their generous support and hospitality during graduate studies and field research. I also thank Alaska NASA EPSCoR, Earthwatch Institute, Encounter Foundation, Herchel Smith-Harvard Undergraduate Science Research Program, Marlborough District Council, National Geographic Society/Waitt Fund Grant, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University at Galveston (TAMUG), Tom Slick Graduate Fellowship, University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), and University of Sydney for funding. I am also grateful for the multitude of research assistants and students at TAMUG and UAS who assisted with data collection and analysis over the years.

Supplementary material

Video S1

A large mixed group of approximately 200–300 dusky dolphins swims off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Here, the research vessel is near the rear, peripheral side of the group where mother-calf pairs often travel together (Fanucci-Kiss 2015). Taken under DOC permit 37696-MAR. (MP4 10152 kb)

Video S2

Animal-borne cameras permit individual focal follows and fine-scale analysis of subsurface behaviors from the “animal’s perspective”. Analysis of video footage obtained from a dusky dolphin tagged off New Zealand enables an assessment of social parameters such as sociability (no. dolphins in view/min) and flipper rubbing (time 0:04) and mother-calf behaviors such as infant (time 0:04) and echelon (time 0:07) position swimming and nursing (time 0:47). Taken under DOC permit 37696-MAR. (MP4 23852 kb)

References

  1. Aquaculture New Zealand (2018) https://www.aquaculture.org.nz/industry/. Accessed 25 June 2018
  2. Benoit-Bird KJ, Au WWL (2009) Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris. J Acoust Soc Am 125:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benoit-Bird KJ, Würsig B, McFadden CJ (2004) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) foraging in two different habitats: active acoustic detection of dolphins and their prey. Mar Mamm Sci 20:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benoit-Bird KJ, Dahood AD, Würsig B (2009) Using active acoustics to compare lunar effects on predator–prey behavior in two marine mammal species. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 395:119–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Best PB, Meÿer MA (2010) Neglected but not forgotten-Southern Africa’s dusky dolphins. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 291–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown JS, Laundre JW, Gurung M (1999) The ecology of fear: optimal foraging, game theory, and trophic interactions. J Mammal 80:385–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buurman D (2010) Dolphin swimming and watching: one tourism operator’s perspective. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byrne RW, Whiten A (eds) (1989) Machiavellian intelligence. Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW, Chen KH, Dornbusch SM (1982) Theory and observation in cultural transmission. Science 218:19–27PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Childerhouse S, Baxter A (2010) Human interactions with dusky dolphins: a management perspective. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 245–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cipriano FW (1992) Behavior and occurrence patterns, feeding ecology, and life history of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Dissertation, University of ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  12. Cipriano F, Webber M (2010) Dusky dolphin life history and demography In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, p. 21–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clutton-Brock TH, Harvey PH (1980) Primates, brains and ecology. J Zool 190:309–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crespi Abril AC, García NA, Crespo EA, Coscarella MA (2003) Consumption of marine mammals by broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus in the northern and central Patagonian shelf. Lat Am J Aquat Mamm 2:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dahood AD, Benoit-Bird KJ (2010) Dusky dolphins foraging at night. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dans SL, Crespo EA, Pedraza SN, Alonso MK (1997) Notes on the reproductive biology of female dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off the Patagonia coast. Mar Mamm Sci 13:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dans SL, Alonso MK, Pedraza SN, Crespo EA (2003) Incidental catch of dolphins in trawling fisheries off Patagonia, Argentina: can populations persist? Ecol Appl 13:754–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dans SL, Crespo EA, Pedraza SN, Degrati M, Garaffo GV (2008) Dusky dolphin and tourist interaction: effect on diurnal feeding behavior. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 369:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Degrati M, Dans SL, Pedraza SN, Crespo EA, Garaffo GV (2008) Diurnal behavior of dusky dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. J Mammal 89:1241–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Degrati M, Dans SL, Garaffo GV, Crespo EA (2012) Diving for food: a switch of foraging strategies of dusky dolphins in Argentina. J Ethol 30:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Degrati M, Dans SL, Garaffo GV, Cabreira AG, Castro Machado F, Crespo EA (2013) Sequential foraging of dusky dolphins with an inspection of their prey distribution. Mar Mamm Sci 29:691–704Google Scholar
  22. Degrati M, Coscarella MA, Crespo EA, Dans SL (2018) Dusky dolphin group dynamics and association patterns in Península Valdés, Argentina. Mar Mamm Sci. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1111/mms.12536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dehn MM (1990) Vigilance for predators: detection and dilution effects. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 26:337–342Google Scholar
  24. Department of Conservation (2009) New measures for management of commercial dolphin watching off Kaikoura. Available from https://www.doc.govt.nz/news/media-releases/2009/new-measures-for-management-of-commercial-dolphin-watching-off-kaikoura/. Accessed 8 Oct 2018
  25. Dugatkin LA, Mesterton-Gibbons M, Houston AI (1992) Beyond the prisoner’s dilemma: toward models to discriminate among mechanisms of cooperation in nature. Trends Ecol Evol 7:202–205PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunbar RIM (1998) The social brain hypothesis. Evol Anthropol 6:178–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunbar RM (2003) The social brain: mind, language, and society in evolutionary perspective. Annu Rev Anthropol 32:163–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunbar RIM, Shultz S (2017) Why are there so many explanations for primate brain evolution? Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 372:20160244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliser DR, Herzing DL (2014a) Long-term social structure of a resident community of Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, in the Bahamas 1991–2002. Mar Mamm Sci 30:308–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elliser DR, Herzing DL (2014b) Social structure of Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, following environmental disturbance and demographic changes. Mar Mamm Sci 30:329–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fanucci-Kiss A (2015) Mother knows best: ecological factors shaping maternal sociality in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). BA Thesis, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  32. Fox KCR, Muthukrishna M, Shultz S (2017) The social and cultural roots of whale and dolphin brains. Nat Ecol Evol 1:1699–1705PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garaffo GV, Dans SL, Pedraza SN, Crespo EA, Degrati M (2007) Habitat use by dusky dolphin in Patagonia: how predictable is their location? Mar Biol 152:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gazda SK, Connor RC, Edgar RK, Cox F (2005) A division of labour with role specialization in group-hunting bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off Cedar Key, Florida. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 272:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gowans S, Würsig B, Karczmarski L (2008) The social structure and strategies of delphinids: predictions based on an ecological framework. Adv Mar Biol 53:195–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herzing DL (1996) Vocalizations and associated underwater behavior of free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis and bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Aquat Mamm 22:61–79Google Scholar
  37. Humphrey NK (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Batespn PPG, Hinde RA (eds) Growing points in ethology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 303–317Google Scholar
  38. IUCN (2018) The IUCN Red List of threatened species. Version 2017–3. www.iucnredlist.org Accessed 01 July 2018
  39. Jerison HJ (1973) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Jolly A (1966) Lemur social behavior and primate intelligence. Science 153:501–506PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Karczmarski L, Würsig B, Gailey G, Larson KW, Vanderlip C (2005) Spinner dolphins in a remote Hawaiian atoll: social grouping and population structure. Behav Ecol 16:675–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Koen-Alonso M, Crespo AD, Garcia NA, Pedraza SN, Coscarella MA (1988) Diet of dusky dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, in waters off Patagonia, Argentina. Fish Bull 96:366–374Google Scholar
  43. Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) (1993) An introduction to behavioral ecology. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Lewis KB, Barnes PM (1999) Kaikoura Canyon, New Zealand: active conduit from near-shore sediment zones to trench-axis channel. Mar Geol 162:39–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lindefors P (2005) Neocortex evolution in primates: the ‘social brain’ is for females. Biol Lett 1:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Loizaga De Castro R, Saporiti F, Vales DG, García NA, Cardona L, Crespo EA (2016) Feeding ecology of dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus: evidence from stable isotopes. J Mammal 97:310–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lundquist D, Gemmell NJ, Würsig B (2012) Behavioral responses of dusky dolphin groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to tour vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand. PLoS One 7:e41969PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lundquist D, Gemmell NJ, Würsig B, Markowitz T (2013) Dusky dolphins movement patterns: short-term effects of tourism. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 47:430–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lusseau SM, Wing SR (2006) Importance of local production versus pelagic subsidies in the diet of an isolated population of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 321:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lusseau D, Schneider K, Boisseau OJ, Haase P, Slooten E, Dawson SM (2003) The bottlenose dolphin community of doubtful sound features a large proportion of long-lasting associations. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:396–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mangel JC, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Van Waerebeek K, Cáceres C, Bearhop S, Witt MJ, Godley BJ (2010) Small cetacean captures in Peruvian artisanal fisheries: high despite protective legislation. Biol Conserv 143:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mangel JC, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Witt MJ, Hodgson DJ, Godley BJ (2013) Using pingers to reduce bycatch of small cetaceans in Peru’s small-scale driftnet fishery. Oryx 47:596–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marino L, McShea DW, Uhen MD (2004) Origin and evolution of large brains in toothed whales. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 281A:1247–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Markowitz TM (2004) Social organization of the New Zealand dusky dolphin. Dissertation, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  55. Markowitz TM, Harlin AD, Würsig B, McFadden CJ (2004) Dusky dolphin foraging habitat: overlap with aquaculture in New Zealand. Aquat Conserv 14:133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Markowitz TM, Markowitz WJ, Morton LM (2010a) Mating habits of New Zealand dusky dolphins. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 151–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markowitz TM, Dans SL, Crespo EA, Lundquist DL, Duprey NMT (2010b) Human interactions with dusky dolphins: harvest, fisheries, habitat alteration, and tourism. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 211–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McFadden CJ (2003) Behavioral flexibility of feeding dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in Admiralty Bay, New Zealand. MS thesis, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  59. Melillo-Sweeting K, Turnbull SD, Guttridge TL (2014) Evidence of shark attacks on Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) off Bimini, The Bahamas. Mar Mamm Sci 30:1158–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Norris KS, Dohl TP (1980) The structure and functions of cetacean schools. In: Hermann LM (ed) Cetacean behavior: mechanisms and functions. Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 211–261Google Scholar
  61. Norris KS, Schilt CR (1988) Cooperative societies in three-dimensional space: on the origins of aggregations, flocks, and schools, with special reference to dolphins and fish. Ethol Sociobiol 9:149–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. O’Connor S (2009) Whale watching worldwide. Tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding economic benefits. A special report from IFAW – the international fund for animal welfare. Yarmouth, MA, prepared by Economists at LargeGoogle Scholar
  63. Orbach DM, Packard JM, Würsig B (2014) Mating group size in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus): costs and benefits of scramble competition. Ethology 120:804–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Orbach DM, Rosenthal GG, Würsig B (2015) Copulation rate declines with mating group size in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus). Can J Zool 93:503–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Orbach DN, Pearson HC, Beier-Engelhaupt A, Deutsch S, Srinivasan M, Weir JS, Yin S, Würsig B (2018) Long-term assessment of spatio-temporal association patterns of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Aquat Mamm 44(6):608–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Otali E, Gilchrist JS (2006) Why chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) mothers are less gregarious than nonmothers and males: the infant safety hypothesis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 59:561–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pearson HC (2008) Fission-fusion sociality in dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), with comparisons to other dolphins and great apes, Dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
  68. Pearson HC (2009) Influences on dusky dolphin fission-fusion dynamics in Admiralty Bay, New Zealand. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:1437–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pearson HC (2017) Unraveling the function of dolphin leaps using the dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) as a model species. Behaviour 154:563–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pearson HC, Shelton DE (2010) A large-brained social animal. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 333–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pearson HC, Vaughn-Hirschorn RL, Srinivasan M, Würsig B (2012) Avoidance of mussel farms by dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in New Zealand. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 46:567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pearson HC, Jones P, Srinivasan M, Lundquist D, Pearson CJ, Machovsky-Capuska GE (2017a) Testing and deployment of C-VISS (Cetacean-borne Video camera and Integrated Sensor System) on wild dolphins. Mar Biol 164:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pearson HC, Markowitz TM, Weir JS, Würsig B (2017b) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) social structure characterized by social fluidity and preferred companions. Mar Mamm Sci 33:251–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pirotta E, New L, Harwood J, Lusseau D (2014) Activities, motivations and disturbance: an agent-based model of bottlenose dolphin behavioral dynamics and interactions with tourism in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Ecol Model 282:44–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Piwetz S (2018) Effects of human activities on coastal dolphin behavior. Dissertation, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  76. Reeves RR, Stewart BS, Clapham PJ, Powell JA (eds) (2002) Guide to marine mammals of the world. AA Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Reeves RR, McClellan K, Werner TB (2013) Marine mammal bycatch in gillnet and other entangling net fisheries, 1990 to 2011. Endanger Species Res 20:71–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ribeirio S, Viddi FA, Cordeiro JL, Freitas TRO (2007) Fine-scale habitat selection of Chilean dolphins (Cephalorhynchus eutropia): interactions with aquaculture activities in southern Chiloé Island, Chile. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 87:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Romero MA, Dans SL, García N, Svendsen GM, González R, Crespo EA (2012) Feeding habits of two sympatric dolphin species off North Patagonia, Argentina. Mar Mamm Sci 28:364–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Shelton DE, Harlin-Cognato AD, Honeycutt RL, Markowitz TM (2010) In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 195–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sol D, Duncan RP, Blackburn TM, Cassey P, Lefebvre L (2005) Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:5460–5465PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Srinivasan M, Markowitz TM (2010) Predator threats and dusky dolphin survival strategies. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 133–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Srinivasan M, Pearson HC, Vaughn-Hirshorn RL, Würsig B, Murtugudde R (2012) Using climate downscaling to hypothesize impacts on apex predator marine ecosystem dynamics. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 46:575–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Srinivasan M, Swannack TM, Grant WE, Rajan J, Würsig B (2018) To feed or not to feed? Bioenergetic impacts of fear-driven behaviors in lactating dolphins. Ecol Evol 8:1384–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. van Schaik C (2006) Why are some animals so smart? Sci Am 294(4):64–71PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Waerebeek K, Read AJ (1994) Reproduction of dusky dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, from coastal Peru. J Mammal 75:1054–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Waerebeek K, Reyes JC (1994) Post-ban small cetacean takes off Peru: a review. Rep Int Whal Comm 15:503–520Google Scholar
  88. Van Waerebeek K, Würsig B (2018) Dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus. In: Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, Kovacs KM (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vaughn RL, Shelton DE, Timm LL, Watson LA, Würsig B (2007) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding tactics and multi-species associations. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 41:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vaughn RL, Würsig B, Shelton DS, Timm LL, Watson LA (2008) Dusky dolphins influence prey accessibility for seabirds in Admiralty Bay, New Zealand. J Mammal 89:1051–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vaughn R, Würsig B, Packard J (2010a) Dolphin prey herding: prey ball mobility relative to dolphin group and prey ball sizes, multispecies associates, and feeding duration. Mar Mamm Sci 26:213–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vaughn RL, Degrati M, McFadden CJ (2010b) In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 115–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vaughn-Hirshorn RL, Muzi E, Richardson JL, Fox GJ, Hansen LN, Salley AM, Dudzinski KM, Würsig B (2013) Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes. Behav Process 98:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Watson-Capps JJ, Mann J (2005) Effects of aquaculture on bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops sp.) ranging in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Biol Conserv 124:519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weir JS (2008) Dusky dolphin nursery groups off Kaikoura, New Zealand. MS thesis, Texas A&M UniversityGoogle Scholar
  96. Weir JS, Duprey NMT, Würsig B (2008) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) subgroup distribution: are shallow waters a refuge for nursery groups? Can J Zool 86:1225–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weir J, Deutsch S, Pearson HC (2010) Dusky dolphin calf rearing. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weir JS, Fiori L, Orbach DN, Piwetz S, Protheroe C, Würsig B (2018) Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) mother-calf pairs: an aerial perspective. Aquat Mamm 44:603–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Whitehead H, Rendell L, Osborne RW, Würsig B (2004) Culture and conservation of non-humans with reference to whales and dolphins: review and new directions. Biol Conserv 120:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Williams JA, Dawson SM, Slooten E (1993) Abundance and distribution of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Can J Zool 71:2080–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wrangham RW (1979) On the evolution of ape social systems. Soc Sci Inf 18:335–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Würsig B (1979) Dolphins. Sci Am 240:136–148PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Würsig B (1986) Delphinid foraging strategies. In: Schusterman RJ, Thomas JA, Wood FG (eds) Dolphin cognition and behavior: a comparative approach. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 347–359Google Scholar
  104. Würsig B (2010) Social creatures in a changing sea: concluding remarks. In: Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 355–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Würsig B (2018) Intelligence. In: Würsig B, Thewissen JGM, Kovacs KM (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals, 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Würsig B, Bastida R (1986) Long-range movement and individual associations of two dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Argentina. J Mammal 67:773–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Würsig B, Pearson HC (2014) Dusky dolphins: flexibility in foraging and social strategies. In: Yamagiwa J, Karczmarski L (eds) Primates and cetaceans: field research and conservation of complex mammalian societies. Springer, New York, pp 25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Würsig B, Würsig M (1980) Behavior and ecology of the dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus, in the South Atlantic. Fish Bull 77:871–890Google Scholar
  109. Würsig B, Würsig M (eds) (2010) The dusky dolphin: master acrobat off different shores. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  110. Würsig B, Würsig M, Cipriano F (1989) Dusky dolphins in different worlds. Oceanus 32:71–75Google Scholar
  111. Würsig B, Cipriano F, Slooten E, Constantine R, Barr K, Yin S (1997) Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off New Zealand: status of present knowledge. Rep Int Whal Commn 47:715–722Google Scholar
  112. Würsig B, Reeves RR, Ortega-Ortiz JG (2002) Global climate change and marine mammals. In: Evans PGH, Raga JA (eds) Marine mammals. Springer, Boston, pp 589–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Würsig B, Duprey N, Weir J (2007) Dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) in New Zealand waters: present knowledge and research goals. DOC Res Dev Ser 270:1–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesUniversity of Alaska SoutheastJuneauUSA

Personalised recommendations